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    ^ r-^A-^o --Jf^:> o>.^^5 rs^fe^n C'*w .i ilt ni-w .. ' *J> v.'... :dJ' '...'... *J^- ,. .., '^'-,..'...'.*^'v^w S'-vT^O-W Si-O^T^S' iS-CXO'-S- S--rT. ---S i-*:-^-^

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    ljp i. H. Hill iCibraraNortli (Earaltna ^talpInitipraitg

    ^.B471R46

    This book was presented byAlfred 3. Yeomans

    sTME u';v.'^'i^l,',,''iVi'Hill''s00587632 V

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    THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE DATEINDICATED BELOW AND IS SUB-JECT TO AN OVERDUE FINE ASPOSTED AT THE CIRCULATIONDESK.0^BWmDEC 8 1982

    DEC 2 1991

    MAY 2 7 1992

    AUG 2 6 1992NOV 2 4 1992tEB'2 1 1993

    ''Uj-f^

    SEP17Z0ee 6 20134

    MAY 4 2006JUN 1 ? 2007

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    THE ART OF LANDSCAPE-GARDENING

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    c

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    The Art ofLANDSCAPEGARDENINGBy f|ump|)rp ^epton Esq^

    Including his SKETCHES AND HINTSON LANDSCAPE GARDENING andTHEORYAND PRACTICE OFLAND-SCAPE GARDENINGEdited by JOHN NOLEN, A.M.

    Member of the American Society of Landscape Architects

    BOSTON AND NEfV TORKHOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANYC^c Kitjcroilic prcsfs, CambriUffeMDCCCCVII

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    COPYRIGHT 1907 BY HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANYALL RIGHTS RESERVED

    Published November iqcfj

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    This is the first volume of a series of classics inLandscape Architecture which has been under-taken at the suggestion and with the cooperationofthe American Society ofLandscape Architects

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    Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION XVSKETCHES AND HINTS ON LAND-SCAPE GARDENING

    Preface.

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    Contents

    THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OFLANDSCAPE GARDENING 63Preface. Some General Observations on

    Taste 65Chap. I. Introduction General Principles Utility Scale Examples

    of Comparative Proportion Useof Perspective 7

    Chap. II. Ground apparently altered by theSituation of the Spectator Re-fectionsfrom the Surface ofWaterexplained and applied DifferentEffects of Light on DifferentObjects 84

    Chap. III. Water Its General Treatment Art must deceive to imitateNature Water at WentworthdescribedA River easier toimitate than a Lake 91

    Chap. IV. Planting Immediate and FutureEffect Clumps Groups Masses The Browsing-Line de-scribed Combination ofMasses toproduce Great Woods Characterand Shape of Ground to be studied Outline of New Plantations i o 3

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    ContentsChap. V. Woods Intricacy Variety A Belt On thinningWoods Leaving Groups

    Opening a Lawn in GreatWoods 1 1

    Chap. VI. Fences T^he Boundary TheSeparation 1 27Chap. VII. Farm and Park Distinct Ob-

    jects Beauty and Profit seldomcompatible 1 36

    Chap. VIII. Pleasure-Grounds Flower-Gardens Greenhouses andCon-servatories Various Modes ofattaching them to a House 142

    Chap. IX. Landscape Gardening andPaint-ing Pictures may imitate Na-ture^ but Nature is not to copyPictures 148

    Chap. X. Ancient and Modern Gardening Change of Style Art andNature considered 160

    Chap. XI. Endless Variety of Situation andCharacter First Impressions Roads EntrancesAdap-tation of Ornamental Buildings 171

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    ContentsChap. XII. Architecture and Gardening in-

    separableForms andArrange-ments of Different Eras Change in Customs alters UsesofRooms 190

    Chap. XIII. Formation of a new PlaceApplication of Gardening andArchitecture CharacteristicArchitectureHowfar itshouldprevail internally 208

    Chap. XIV. Conclusion Concerning Colour Diffculty of Comparisofis be-twixt Art and Nature 217

    NOTES 221

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    List of Plates

    Frontispiece, View from Reptons Cottage in Es-sex {before and after improvements)

    Plate I. Illustrating Classic and Gothic Ar-chitecture in contrast with round-headed and pointed trees

    Plate II. Choresby {from a photograph byr. W, Sears)Plate III. The effect of removing trees in the

    oblique view of an avenue at Lang-ley Park

    Plate IV, 'Thoresby The Deer Park {froma photograph by T. W. Sears)

    Plate V, Castle Hill, shewing the effect ofcattle to mark the extent of a lawnwhich slopes from the eye

    Plate VI. Lathom View from the house,shewing the effect of removing thepond, which is so near the eye thatits glare prevents the lawn frombeing seen beyond it

    Plate VII. The Thames,from Purley: MorningThe Thames,from Purley : Evening

    20

    23

    26

    42

    46

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    xii

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    List of Figures

    Fig. I. Illustrating the shape of the ground atStanmore 8

    Fig. 1. Illustrating the shape of the ground atErandsbury 9

    Fig. 3 . Sections to shew the manner of adaptinghouses to different natural shapes ofground 29

    Fig. 4. Diagram to shew the use of the humanfigure as a scale for measuring objects 73

    Fig. 5. Diagram 76Fig. 6. Diagram 78Fig. 7. View from Wentworth House, before it

    was improved, and while the improve-ments were goingforward 80

    Fig. 8. View from Wentworth House, shewingthe effect intended to be produced by theproposed alterations 82

    Fig. 9. Diagram 85Fig. 10. Diagram 87Fig. II. Diagram 88Fig. 12. Diagram 88

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    xiv

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    IntroductionHUMPHRY REPTON was born at Bury

    Saint Edmunds, England, May 2, 1752,and died at Harestreet, Essex, March 24, 1818.The period covered by his Ufe is in many respectsthe most important in the history of landscapegardening. It is true that the reaction from theabsurdities and excesses of formal gardening andthe awakening to the beauty and value of a naturalrural landscape came before his time. Addisonand Pope were the most influential of the literaryadvocates of this great change, and William Kentand his successor Capability Brown were thepractical men who applied the new ideas to thecountry-places of England, often indeed ruthlesslydestroying formal grounds of great beauty in thezeal of a somewhat unbalanced reaction. But itis to the period of Repton and the work of Rep-ton himself that we must look for the soundand rational development of the so-called land-scape school of England, a school whose influencespread rapidly to the Continent of Europe andwhose principles still control the treatment oflarge areas in the informal or naturalistic style.

    This change in taste was not confined to gar-dening. It manifested itself in all the artistic

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    Introductionexpressions ofthe period. It was due to the move-ment called romanticism, the renaissance ofwonder. In almost innumerable ways the world ac-quired a new power of appeal and response to man.The glory of lake and mountain and meadow,the exquisite grace of childhood, the dignity andworth of manhood, the intrinsic interest of thecommonplace, to these and to other influencesof a similar character mankind became sensitive.Romanticism was in truth an extraordinary devel-opment of imaginative sensibility, and the centreof the movement in England lay in its various,intimate, and subtle interpretations of the worldof nature. Through it nature became to man aninexhaustible resource. Therefore the conditionswere ready and the time was ripe for such idealsof landscape gardening as those held and advo-cated by Repton.The work of Repton as landscape gardener is

    one of the most notable achievements in that pro-fession. He has to his credit the creation, trans-formation, or improvement of over two hundredimportant places. His clients were in all parts ofEngland and included men of nearly every degreeand station. And to appreciate the scope of Rep-ton's practice we must call to mind the extentand character and marvellous beauty ofthe typicalEnglish country-place of the eighteenth century.It included not only all that is best in the privateplaces ofourown time, but also the adequate setting

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    Introductionfor buildings ofgreat size, corresponding to publicbuildings in the present day, and the creation ofthe type of scenery that is characteristic of mod-ern rural or country parks. Without doubtthe most suggestive ideals for the public parks ofour own great cities, ideals that have impressedthemselves upon the most distinguished landscapearchitects since Repton's day, are to be found inthe park or informal pleasure-grounds ofa v^^ell-to-do Englishman's estate. These parks wereextensive in area, usually including from one toa thousand acres, and possessed all the interest andcharm of beautiful natural scenery enhanced andp