AP United States History. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)  Person of reason and science  Little formal education  Autobiography – enjoyed learning.

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<ul><li><p>AP United States History</p></li><li><p>Structure of Colonial Society</p><p>1760s an optimistic post-war periodstriking ethnic and racial diversity60% of population under 21 years oldhigh level of post-war prosperitywealth unevenly distributedAmericans were proud to be part of Europes most thriving, prosperous empire</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)Person of reason and scienceLittle formal educationAutobiography enjoyed learning / reading1721Franklin and brother formed the New England Courant (weekly newspaper) </p></li><li><p>Satirized political and religious leaders BostonThe Religious leaders did not like this and were hostile towards himHe left 1723 PhiladelphiaDevoted to pursuit of knowledge </p></li><li><p>Experimented with electricity 1756 lightning rod inventedDesigned a stovePromoted the spread of reasonOrganized groups that discussed literature, philosophy, and science </p></li><li><p>The Great AwakeningReligious movement - started in New England 1730sWithin 10 years it burnt itself out1750-1760 renewedmost impact/northern colonies Prior to this, many complained religion lost vitalityLooked back in historyMinisters no longer touched the heartsSouth lacked enough ministers </p></li><li><p>Jonathan Edwards Northampton MA. Sparked the Great Awakening in AmericaCalvinist people were dependent on Gods willThought fellow ministers had become softOmnipotence (all-powerful) spoke of internal damnationYoung people flocked to hear himExcitement spread evangelical ministers </p></li><li><p>Albany Congress Franklin Plan Grand Council blueprint for colonial unityPlan fell apart But he had stated the colonies needed to be united to surviveMany American colonists wanted the English to defeat the Indians in Ohio Valley and push the French away. (Wars cost money) SEE -political cartoon important -121</p></li><li><p>Ohio Valley French were in control of the Ohio ValleyBritish decided to destroy Ft. DuquesneGeneral Braddock, English &amp; colonist soldiers =2,500French and Indians killed 70% French little damage </p></li><li><p>Seven-Year War Called the French and Indian War in AmericaMay 1756 British declared war on FranceWorld War William Pitt took personal control of Army and Navy </p></li><li><p>Meanings of Empire Colonist in 1760s did not anticipate national independencePost-war era heightened economic and political expectation following the end of Seven Years warPopulation grew 1776 =2.5 milDiversity amazed European visitorsEnglish, French, Dutch, Germans, Indians, Africans </p></li><li><p>Population Young 60% under 21Most small childrenMany who would fight for revolution not born during Stamp Act Crisis </p></li><li><p>Post-War High level of prosperityQuality of living similar to EnglandTypical family included 3 children money left over /buy consumer goodsEven poorest benefited from rising standard of living </p></li><li><p>Wealth Not evenly distributedSouth most wealthy prospered in part by owning slaves90% of slavery in SouthMiddle colonies followed by New England </p></li><li><p>Breakdown of Trust King George III (England) 1760 age 22 George hated people associated w/George II reign Determined to play an aggressive role in government </p></li><li><p>Whigs Political leaders did not want the king interferingSelected Earl of Bute as chief minister upset Whigs (Parliament)1766 Bute left officeKing would have several ministersPeople in power sub-ministers confused about what expected of them King showed little interest in American Colonies </p></li><li><p>Parliament Members of Parliament share in blame for wedge in coloniesAlso all correspondence handwritten 3 month for info to get to AmericaEngland ruling class also insisted that Parliament was dominant </p></li><li><p>Power supreme in matters involving taxationAuthority to make lawsEnglish Parliament did not want to share any powers with any form of government in AmericaEnglish ruling class looked at Americans as Englishmen and couldnt understand Americans frustration </p></li><li><p>Taxation Without Representation Americans did not feel that Parliament looked out for their best interest1763 Georgia defended the power of assemblies in AmericaOver a century the assemblies expanded its authority / taxation and spending </p></li><li><p>England did not try and stop this expansion of power / local administrators took a bigger role with timeNow it seemed unreasonable that Parliament wanted to show its supremacyLegislators felt they had some inherent rights/ like House of Commons in England </p></li><li><p>Grenville 1764 Chancellor George Grenville insisted to Americans that even though they had not elected representatives to Parliament / America was virtually represented (virtual representation) Parliament represented the political interests of allThe Americans did not agree / representatives are those that are elected by the peopleSomeone not elected by them could not tax them </p></li><li><p>Connecticut Assemble 1964 Conn. Assemble No law can be made or abrogated without the consent of the people by their representatives America and England could not agree </p></li><li><p>Appeal Political ideology in America contained strong moral componentsGreat Awakening created awareness of obligation of conduct public and private ScripturesAmericans expressed political beliefs in language taken from English writers </p></li><li><p>John Locke Two Treatises of GovernmentPeople possessed natural and inalienable rightsGod-given rights of life, liberty and propertyFree men formed contracts this was the foundation of civil government consent of peopleJustified rebellion against arbitrary governmentsAmericans like Lockes ability to unite religious values with popular government </p></li><li><p>Commonwealth tradition John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon spent part of life in political oppressionPower very dangerous and could destroy liberty unless countered by virtuePeople who shared this belief looked at bad policy as sin and corruptionShould be sacrifice of self-interest for public good </p></li><li><p>Writers Of the time reflected that Americans were more virtuous than people in England1760s -writers not sure how long colonists could stand for arbitrary taxation, standing army, Anglican bishop external threats designed to crush liberty </p></li><li><p>1774 Conn. declared present ministry corrupt / led by the devilwanting to take away liberties and properties and enslave the peopleCalled Britains leaders pimps and parasitesWriters roused men and women to resist England with force </p></li><li><p>Newspapers Spread information to large populationsMajority of adult males could readPeople followed events concerning other citiesPeople shared political experiencesdrew Americans closer togetherJohn Adamssaid 13 clocksto strike together </p></li><li><p>Resistance Seven Year War England in huge debtAnnual budget only paid the interestGeorge II did not disband troops after warLargest peacetime army /English history </p></li><li><p>Costs Maintaining the army cost moneyBurden of cost taxpayersGovernment looked for new ways to tax </p></li><li><p>America Doubted the value of the large armyTroops in America did little to maintain peace on frontier1763Indians wanted to stop settlers moving west </p></li><li><p>Neolin Known as the Delaware ProphetVisions Indians need to restore culture to original state before white manPontiac Ottawa coordinated an uprising Pontiac RebellionAttacked Detroit other Indians attacked Pennsylvania, Virginia frontierAfter a year Pontiac wanted peaceBritish army unable to defend settlers </p></li><li><p>Indians Suffered from the end of the Seven Year warNo longer played the French against EnglishSettlers now moved westPontiacs Rebellion increased racism </p></li><li><p>Paxton Boys 1763 Murdered Indians, men, women and childrenPeople treated them like heroesFranklin spoke against killing of Indians during peacetime </p></li><li><p>Proclamation of 1763 British government prohibited granting land beyond headwaters of riversWest of the Appalachian MountainsArmy looked at as an obstruction to economic development / police that cost too much </p></li><li><p>National Debt EnglandResponsibility to reduce debt GrenvileFelt colonist contribute to maintenance of army </p></li><li><p>Revenue Act Sugar Act 1764New burden on Navigational ActsAmericans forced to trade only with EnglandSugar Act and other acts to follow colonies expected to generate revenue</p></li><li><p>Sugar Act said America needed to pay expense of its own defense Parliament reduced tax on molassesDiscourage smuggling, briberyAmericans felt the tax unjustAmericans should make their own tax</p></li><li><p>Mobilizing the People Sugar Act created debateColonists did not offer alternative to taxHouse of Commons assumed Parliament did have the right to tax colonistsGrenvile then wanted to establish Stamp ActTax on stamps and seals for legal documents </p></li><li><p>Virginia House of Burgesses Patrick Henry introduced 5 Resolutions protesting the Stamp ActDeclared Virginia only had the right to tax Virginia House passed thisSaid it was unjust and destroyed libertyThe Speaker accused him of treason</p></li><li><p>Newspapers Spread word of incidentReported that resolutions had full support of House (not correct)Other Americans took up the radical voiceMass meeting to protest Grenviles policies </p></li><li><p>Stamp Act Congress 9 colonies sent representatives 1765Leaders from different areas discussed problemsDrafted petition to king and Parliament no taxes should be imposed on colonies without consentResistance to Stamp Act spread from representatives to the streetMass protests were organized </p></li><li><p>Sons of Liberty Boston- burned in effigy the local stamp collector /tore down his office buildingViolence frightened colonial leadersNov. 1, 1765 stamp distributors had resigned Sons of Liberty persuaded colonial merchants to boycott English goods Samuel Adams one of the leaders</p></li><li><p>Boycott Colonists depended on British goodsImported more than what was neededPeople were encouraged to use lessMobilized women-made their own dresses did without goods </p></li><li><p>Saving Face Grenville was replaced w/ RockinghamHe wanted to end the stamp act and encouraged people to petition Parliament to repeal the actAmerican boycott was having some effectAct was repealed by Parliament </p></li><li><p>Declaratory Act Stated parliaments supremacy over AmericaAmericans, however, felt responsible for the Stamp Act repealStill insisted no taxation without representationAmericans now looked with less respect to royal leaders governors, custom collectors, military personnel </p></li><li><p>Tea and Sovereignty Charles Townshend Chancellor 1767Revenue Acts designed to make money on American imports (tea and others)American Board of Customs to enforce the actsGovernor of New York ordered to veto all bills passed colony assembly </p></li><li><p>Quartering Act More troops sent to America and Americans must allow them to stay in their homeAmericans resisted this and all new taxes </p></li><li><p>Boycotts continuedMass. Sent letters to other assemblies looking for ways to stop the Townshend ActsEngland looked at this- attempt at a united treasonMass. Ordered to rescind their request voted 92-17 to defy EnglandGovernor then dissolved House of RepresentativesOther colonies then came out in support of Mass. </p></li><li><p>Patriotic Martyrs 4,000 troops sent to Boston (taken from Nova Scotia and Ireland)This was done to save moneyAmericans -why so many troops in America?Soldiers camped at Boston Common would shout obscenities at passing citizensIn their spare time some took up part time jobs taking work away from locals led to the.</p></li><li><p>Boston Massacre March 5, 1770Young boys (and others) threw rocks and snowballs at soldiersA mob grew and soldiers feared for their safetyTroops fired into the crowd 5 Americans deadLocals called this a massacre Paul Revere (propagandist) </p></li><li><p>Lord North Appointed to replace Townshend after his deathActs repealed except teaStill supported Declaratory Act </p></li><li><p>Last Days of the Old Order For awhile British officials and colonists put aside differencesBritish goods flooded American portsNorth attempted to win the American trustHowever custom officials abused their power of search and seizureTaking supplies form people and pocketing the money </p></li><li><p>Samuel Adams Adams kept the cause alive Reported the tax on tea remained in forceAdams resisted all attempts by England to maintain control of the coloniesHe was a leader of the Sons of Liberty </p></li><li><p>Committee of Correspondence Established by AdamsTo communicate colonial grievances to other colonies </p></li><li><p>Boston Tea PartyMay 1773Parliament passed the Tea ActLowered the price on teaEngland wanted to save its business East India Tea CompanyParliament allowed the company to sell directly to Colonies</p></li><li><p>England wanted colonists to buy this tea and not tea smuggled from Holland (Americans favorite)Some looked at this as England trying to gain American support to tax without representationAlso undercut powerful merchants who made money on Dutch Tea</p></li><li><p>New York- colonists turned back tea shipsIn Boston the governor would not let the Tea ships return to EnglandLocal patriots would not let them unloadSons of Liberty dressed as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea into Boston Harbor</p></li><li><p>Coercive Acts Intolerable ActsClosed Boston harborRestricted town meetingsAllowed the British governor to transfer English officials arrested send to EnglandAuthorized army to quarter troops wherever needed</p></li><li><p>Thomas GageAppointed as Royal Governor (Boston)Samuel Adams and others felt that England was trying to enslave colonists</p></li><li><p>Quebec ActJune 22, 1774England established a new Civil governmentGave local Catholics a voice in governmentNo legislative bodyAmericans felt that England was trying to deny colonists fundamental rightsThis was a threat to all colonists </p></li><li><p>People in other colonies looked at what was happening in BostonOther colonies supported Boston yet still little talk of independenceColonies sent food and moneyFranklin and others felt that England was trying to punish America like an errant child.</p></li><li><p>Decision for IndependenceCommittee of Correspondence would southern colonies support northern colonies?Would Pennsylvania stand up to Parliament?Called for a meeting of all colonies </p></li><li><p>1ST Continental Congress55 elected delegates from 12 colonies (None from Georgia) Philadelphia 9-5-1774Differences soon emergedAgreed to stop commerce with England until England repealed the Intolerable ActsAgreed to meet the following year</p></li><li><p>Shot Heard Around The WorldApril 18, 1775 General Gage dispatched troops to seize rebel weaponsPaul Revere warned patriots in Lexington and ConcordMilitia in Lexington met the British on the 19thBoth groups faced each other on Lexington GreenShot rang out and British soldiers fired into the militia 8 died</p></li><li><p>Battle RoadWord spread and other colonists (Minutemen) came to support the militiaArmy marched on to ConcordA small band of British soldiers were turned back at ConcordThe soldiers then returned to BostonOn the road back, patriots attacked the army killing many</p></li><li><p>Bunker HillJune 17 - Militia formed a defense on Bunker Hill (outside Boston)British attacked most of the battle fought on Breeds HillThe Americans gave up the ground when they ran out of suppliesConsidered a victory as they killed may English soldiers 40% casualties</p></li><li><p>Second Continental CongressMay 1775 PhiladelphiaFormed a continental army George Washington placed in chargeIssued paper money to pay for military suppliesMany wanted to sever ties with England but no decision for independence</p></li><li><p>Prohibitory ActPassed by Pa...</p></li></ul>


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