95/04105 Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: A review

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<ul><li><p>15 Environment (pollution, health protection, safety) </p><p>95lO4093 Alliance solutions to sarcophagus problems Nuclear Engng. Int., Jun. 1995, 40, (491), 40-41. </p><p>Reports that Phase 1 of the European Union feasibility study on options for dealing with the Chernobyl sarcophagus has concluded that a second shel- ter is urgently needed and that stabilisation of the existing structure can only offer, at best, a short term solution. </p><p>95104094 Analysis of amlnes In petroleum Thomson, J. S. et al., J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 1994, 17, (6), 415-426. Describes the development of an analytical method for differentiation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines using exhaustive trifluoroacetyla- tion prior to GC/MS. Using the conditions described, most primary amines add two and secondary amines add one trifluoroacetyl group. In general, tertiary amines do not react. GC retention indexes and relative GC/MS ion current response factors for 102 trifluoroacetyl derivatives are reported. Provides examples of the application of the method to petroleum and coal liquid products. </p><p>95/04102 Avoiding excessive greenhouse effect by delayed emission of carbon dioxide from the fossil-fuel cycle Seifritz, W. Applied Energy, 1995, 51, (l), 39-49. In order to mitigate substantially the atmospheric CO, peak, responsible for the greenhouse effect, it is proposed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO,) from the fossil-fuel cycle and to store it in the form of CO, dry ice in huge, thermallv insulated. leakv reoositories lo delav the emission of CO. into the atmdsphere. 11 is estikated that a sphere of 60, dry ice, with a diaheter of 400 m and properly insulated by a 2 m thick layer of insulating material, will be sublimated completely in a time span of a few millenia. Since the recovery time of the atmosphere due lo an anthropogenic surplus of CO, inventory is much shorter than this time interval (about 200 years), the atmospheric CO, peak the scientific community is afraid of, will be delayed and damped drastically. </p><p>95104103 Bentonltes and coal waste transformation Lopez, R. J. et al., Afinidad, 1994, 51, (454), 461-465. (In Spanish) The paper describes how bentonite and coal waste were subjected to an alkaline treatment to take advantage of some unknown characteristics of coal waste. </p><p>95104095 Analysls of the Chinese energy system: Impllca- tlons for future CO, emissions Zhang, Z. X. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 1994, 4, (3), 181-198. The paper analyses Chinas energy resources and their development, energy consumption patterns, historical CO? emissions, and environmental challenges for the Chinese energy system m the CO, context. </p><p>95104096 Apparatus for controlling the wet desulfurization of coal-fired boiler flue gases Ookawa, T. (Assigned to) Babcock Hitachi KK, JAP. Pat. JP.O6,238,126, Aug. 1994. </p><p>95104097 Assessing the environmental Impact of technology transfer and commercial oil and gas development In the Medl- terranean area Muntasser, M. A. OPEC Bulletin, Jan. 1995, 26, (l), 11-14. In this paper the author examines the prospects for research work to evalu- ate the studies performed and scientific co-operation achieved in the field of environment and pollution in the Mediterranean area. </p><p>95104104 Bloremediatlon of contamlnatlon of soll, sedlment and water resulting from lignite pyrolysis Stottmeister, U. el al., 2nd Int. Symp. Environ. Biotechnol., Three-Day Symp., Inst. Chemical Eng., Rugby, UK, 1994, 79-81. Reports on an investigation on the possibilities of cheap and ecological remediation of wastewaters, river sediment, and soil contaminated by lig- nite pyrolysis. The wastewaters could be treated biologically by the addi- tion of phosphate and inoculation with a nitrifying culture. </p><p>95104105 Blosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: A revlew Banat, I. M. Bioresource Techno!., 1995, 51, (1). 1-12. Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over a number of important industrial uses, due lo their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under~ extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiar) crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their prod&amp;on and application. At present,. their uses are mainly in the oil and petroleum industries, where they are </p><p>95104098 An assessment of air aualltv In Karachi. Paklstan employed primarily for their emulsification capacity in both tertiary r&amp;ov- erv and oolluted-sites remediation. </p><p>Ghauri, B. et al., Environ. Monir. Asses;., 1944, 32, (l), 3;-45. . . </p><p>Describes an atmospheric pollution survey which was carried out at 13 sites in Karachi, Pakistan. </p><p>95104106 Biotechnology, environment and control Price, B. FT Customer Services, PO Box 6, Camborne, TRl4 9EQ, UK, f300.00, US$450.00, Feb. 1995, 107 pp. </p><p>95104099 Atmospheric mercury species over central and northern Europe, model calculailona and comparison wlth observatlons from the Nordic alr and preclpltatlon network for 1987 and 1988 Petersen, G. et al., Armos. Environ., 1995, 29, (l), 47-67. Describes a chemical scheme based on current knowledge of physiochemi- cal forms and transformation reactions of atmospheric Hg which was implemented into a regional pollutant dispersion model for Europe. </p><p>95104100 Atmosoherlc pollutants and thelr Influence on acld- lflcatlon of raln waier at ari lndustrlal locatlon on the west coast of lndla Khemani, L. T. et al., Armos. Environ., 1994, 28, (19). 3145-3154. The chemical analysis of rainwater samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmosphere aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rainwater during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industralized belt in the Bombay reigon on the west coast of India. </p><p>Biotechnologys potential for improving environmental protection, resource exploitation and food production has made it one of the defining technologies of the age. Howe&amp;, it raises serious ethical questions and thi threat of unknown environmental risks. The report provides a comprehen- sive overview with detailed analysis of the key issues including: environ- mental protection, materials and energy, agriculture and food, environmental problems, and ethical and regulatory issues. </p><p>95104107 Breaking even wlth gas Wilkinson, A. J. and Pearson, S. Gas Engng. Mgmnt., Jan.-Feb. 1995, 35, 22-27. Describes a life cvcle analvsis aouroach to determine the combined ooten- tial global warmiig effect; of dd,, CH,, and N,O emissions arisini from the production, supply and use of coal, oil and natural gas in the UK. </p><p>95104101 Avoldlng dangerous Interference In the climate system. The roles of values, science and policy Moss, R. H. Global Environmental Change, Mar. 1995, 5, (l), 3-6. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) held a workshop in Fortaleza, Brazil (October 1994), to help provide the scientific underpin- nings for the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Conven- tion on Climate Change (UNFCCC): . ..stabilization of greenhouse gas </p><p>95lO4100 Bulldlng services maintenance BSRIA Reading Guide RG 6195, BSRIA, Old Bracknell Lane West, </p><p>Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 7AH, UK, f25.00, Feb. 1995, 72pp. Provides a Reading Guide which updates and replaces BSRIAs earlier Reading Guide, Volumes 1 and 2. Gives a ready reference to the wealth of literature which exists on the subject of maintenance. Includes general discussion papers, educational texts and relevant British and other stan- dards and specifications. </p><p>emissions at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interfer- ences with the climate system.... Scientists can assist in helpmg 10 identify exposure-effect relationships between changes in climate variables and thk structure or function of ecosystems or socio-economic sectors, and how these relationships might vary by ecosystem and location. But determina- tion of dangerous is not solely a scientific process: it involves judgements about what attributes of ecosystems and human activities are most highly valued and what level of change can be considered critical. </p><p>95104109 Buslness and envlronmental accountabllity Grayson, L. et al., Technical Communications, f29.50, 1994, 89 pp. The book gives a overview of recent publications that deal with issues related to the greening of industry. </p><p>95104110 Cables Caine, D. and Russell, E. Elect.Times, Feb. 1995, 17-21. Two short articles on aspects of cables. One article stresses the need for correct specification of cables in a fire detection and alarm system to allow time to save life. The second article discusses the forthcoming require- ments for manufacturers to CE mark cables and the possible benefits aris- ing from it. </p><p>290 Fuel and Energy Abstracts July 1995 </p></li></ul>

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