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16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

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Page 1: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)
Page 2: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

Source:  CDIAC;  NOAA-­‐ESRL;  Le  Quéré  et  al  2015; Global  Carbon  Budget  2015

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Ocean  carbonate  chemistry

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CaCO3 (solid)C

O O

OCa

H HO

H2O HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­

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Addition  of  CO2

CaCO3 (solid)C

O O

OCa

H HO

H2O HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­

CO O CO2

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CO2 + H2O à H2CO3

CO O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­HH

CO O

O H2CO3

CaCO3 (solid)

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H2CO3 à H+ + HCO3-

CO O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­H H+

CaCO3 (solid)

Page 9: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

H2CO3 à H+ + HCO3-

CO O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

H H+

CaCO3 (solid)

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H+ + CO32- à HCO3

-

CO O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

H H+

CaCO3 (solid)

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H+ + CO32- à HCO3

-

CaCO3 (solid)C

O O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

H H+

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H+ + CO32- à HCO3

-

CO O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O CO32-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­H H+

CaCO3 (solid)

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H

H+ + CO32- à HCO3

-

CO O

OCa

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O HCO3-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

CaCO3 (solid)

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H

CaCO3 à Ca2+ + CO32-

CO32-­C

O O

O

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O HCO3-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

Ca Ca2+ (dissolved)

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H

CaCO3 à Ca2+ + CO32-

CO32-­C

O O

O

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O HCO3-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

Ca Ca2+ (dissolved)

Page 16: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

H

CaCO3 à Ca2+ + CO32-

CO32-­CO O

O

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O HCO3-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

Ca Ca2+ (dissolved)

Page 17: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

H

CaCO3 à Ca2+ + CO32-

CO32-­CO O

O

HC

O O

OHCO3-­

CO O

O HCO3-­H

CO O

O HCO3-­

Ca Ca2+ (dissolved)

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Distribution  of  corals  andocean  acidification

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0 1 2 3 4 5

Corrosive OptimalΩAragonite

Carbon dioxide level,

Coral reef distribution,

and chemical

conditions helping

drive reef formation

Cao and Caldeira, 2008

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0 1 2 3 4 5

Corrosive OptimalΩAragoniteCao and Caldeira, 2008

Carbon dioxide level,

Coral reef distribution,

and chemical

conditions helping

drive reef formation

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0 1 2 3 4 5

Corrosive OptimalΩAragoniteCao and Caldeira, 2008

Carbon dioxide level,

Coral reef distribution,

and chemical

conditions helping

drive reef formation

Page 23: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Corrosive OptimalΩAragoniteCao and Caldeira, 2008

Carbon dioxide level,

Coral reef distribution,

and chemical

conditions helping

drive reef formation

Page 24: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Corrosive OptimalΩAragoniteCao and Caldeira, 2008

Carbon dioxide level,

Coral reef distribution,

and chemical

conditions helping

drive reef formation

Page 25: 16S1_08_02_ Caldeira Powerpoint (Part 1)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Corrosive OptimalΩAragoniteCao and Caldeira, 2008

Carbon dioxide level,

Coral reef distribution,

and chemical

conditions helping

drive reef formation

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Kinsey  expeditions  to  the  Great  Barrier  Reef(late  1960s  to  early  1980s)

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Lizard  Island

Expeditions

September  2008November  2009

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Net Coral Skeletal Growth Rate Measured at Lizard Island

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One  Tree  Island

ExpeditionDecember  2009

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Water  ponds  at  different  levels  in  different  lagoons  at  low  tide.

Some  flow  over  sills.

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Rate  of  net  calcification  44%  lower  than  in  1970’s  

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One  Tree  Island

ExpeditionsNov  2011Feb  2013

Sep/Oct  2014

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One  Tree  Island  Research  Station

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Kwiatkowski  et  al  2015

Net  skeletal  growth  (calcification)

Net  photosynthesis  (net  production)

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Australian  reef  metabolism  work

• Large  dataset  thanks  to  autosamplers and  autotitrators

• Strong  diel  cycles  in  calcification/dissolution

• Provisional  conclusion:  Ωarag can  explain  some  of   the  variance  in  δATunaccounted   for  by  T  &  PAR

calcification

dissolution

PAR Ωarag

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