INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE MILITARY
Presented by Lt Col Z.E. MaliLogistics DivisionDirectorate Facilities Support Management
The aim of this presentation is to introduce the DOD Environmental Services Personnel about the contents of the Guidebook on Integrated Waste Management in the Military
AimWhat is WasteTypes of wasteIdentification of Waste StreamsWhat is IWMBenefits of IWMThe IWM HierarchyIWM in Military OperationsDecision Factors
IWM for Base OperationsIWM during Contingency OperationsInformation ManagementInformation for Waste ManagersContinual ImprovementPartnerships Education and Awareness TrainingLink to Risk and Safety ManagementQuestions
WHAT IS WASTEIs defined as an undesirable or superfluous by-product, emission, or residual of any process or activity, which has been discarded, accumulated or been stored for the purpose of discarding or processing:- may be gaseous, liquid or solid or any combination- and may originate from a residential, commercial or industrial area from military or non-military activities.- items that are still usable but are not needed anymore and cannot be used for another purpose, are also considered as waste.
TYPES OF WASTESolid wasteSolid food wasteWaste water- Gray water- Human wasteHazardous WasteAmmunition WasteMedical Waste
IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE STREAMSSeveral waste streams are likely to originate from the core activities of the military.Some of these waste steams may not be hazardous , but the majority may contain component(s) that may need special treatment.Nature of these waste streams may also vary due to composition and physical form.Appropriate waste management options to handle, treat and dispose the waste must be determined in terms of hazardous and non-hazardous.
IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE STREAMS - contWaste streams can be categorised into 6 (six) different streams based on similar health and environmental concerns namely:- Inorganic Wastes - Oily Wastes- Organic Wastes- Putrecible Organic Waste- High Volume/Low Hazard Wastes- Miscellaneous Wastes
WHAT IS IWMIs a holistic, integrated system and process of management aimed at prevention and minimisation at source, managing the impact of waste on the receiving environment and remediating impacted environments.It integrates waste management for maximum efficiency and minimal impacts and financial costs.It aims at planning the management of waste in advance in an environmentally responsible way from its generation until its final disposal.
BENEFITS OF IWMEconomicReduces the cost of input materials and waste management.Generates income (from the sale of waste products)Reduces penalties and fees for non-compliance to legislative provisions.Effectively allocates resources.Reduces disposal and/or remediation costs.
BENEFITS OF IWM cont 1Military MissionEnhances the military mission.Ensures efficiency.Prevent adverse impacts to military operations due to non-compliance or human health issues. Security- Prevents unauthorised access to military information and material and equipment.
BENEFITS OF IWM cont 2EnvironmentalProtecting the environment goes beyond the protection of plants and animals, also promote sustainability.Reduces the source(s) of materials.Reduces the impact on the environment. LegalEnsures compliance with legislative provisions.Facilitates authorisations.Minimises the future and unknown liabilities.
BENEFITS OF IWM cont 3SocialReduces the risk to human.Create jobs.Contributes to improved public relations.
THE IWM HIERARCHYThe benefits of IWM can be best achieved by using an orderly process involving four steps of waste management hierarchy: Cleaner products and services this first step in the waste hierarchy consist of applying the measures of prevention and minimisation.Recycling this second step requires processes of reuse, recovery and composting.Waste Treatment this step includes physical, chemical and biological treatment and destruction. Disposal the final discharge of waste in properly controlled or safe ways.
GUIDELINES FOR IWMCleaner Production and Services- Prevention- MinimisationRecycling- Re-use- Recovery- Compositing
GUIDELINES FOR IWMTreatment- Physical- Chemical- BiologicalDestructionDisposal- Landfill
IWM IN MILITARY OPERATIONIWM must be a part of all military operation to include:- Policy- Making and Strategic Planning- Procurement- Acquisition- Base Management- Contingency Operations
DECISION FACTORSDecision Factors will ensure that informed management decisions are made in terms of the allocation and prioritisation of scarce.The following elements must be considered when deciding on an alternative course of action:- The type of waste- Legal Compliance- Quantity of the waste
DECISION FACTORS -cont - Impact of the Environment.- The available waste management options in terms of technologies, service providers, facilities, industrial support etc.- The availability of internal resources to support waste management options e.g. facilities, personnel, equipment and transport.- The type of military activity- The impact on the military activity
DECISION FACTORS -cont - A cost-benefit analysis of waste management options and /or the process or the product changes. - Cost to be avoided by weighing up different methods when implementing a waste management options.- Revenue generated from the waste.- Safety, health and quality of life.- Public relations.
THE PRODUCT SYSTEM LIFE CYCLEFrom an IWM perspective it is important to realise that waste is generated during each step of the life cycle and not only at the end of the useful life of a product.Military role players must influence each step in the product life cycle to:- Ensure cleaner production- Facilitate recycling.- Reduce the extent, cost and hazards associated with waste treatment.- Minimise the amount of waste to be disposed or remediated.
THE PRODUCT SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
IWM FOR BASE OPERATIONSAn IWM program must be integrated into all levels of the organisation.Its development and implementation is a team effort with the waste manager as the co-ordinator in conjunction with the Hazmat committee.Other members of a waste team include:-Users, procurement; supply support; transport; disposal personnel, a health and safety officer, an environmental manager, the integrated waste manager, service providers, the local authority, a legal advisor and the public relations officer.
IWM FOR BASE OPERATIONScont 1An IWM program at military base require a baseline analysis consisting of the elements:- Map the base and all its facilities- Identify and analyse all waste-generating processes and activities taking place on the base.
IWM FOR BASE OPERATIONS-cont 2- Define waste streams in terms of hazardous and non-hazardous or general waste.- Analyse the waste streams against IWM Hierarch- Evaluate waste management options in the waste management.- Set objectives and priorities for management of waste types
IWM DURING CONTINGENCY OPERATIONSIn essence the process for managing waste during contingency operations such as deployments, training and exercises is the same as for the base level as discussed in the previous section.However this process requires the following in addition:- The waste manager is involved in the planning process from the onset to ensure IWM supports the operation.
IWM DURING CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS- cont 1- The waste manager is involved in the planning process from the onset to ensure IWM supports the operation. - Waste management must be included in the MOU.- An environmental base line survey and mapping of potential waste sites is required for inclusion in the Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) report.
IWM DURING CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS- cont 2- There is a greater emphasis on greener products to reduce the waste load that must be managed. - The host nation and home country legislation and policies must be considered, including the social implications of the generated waste.- The support systems and facilities within the host country must be considered.- When considering the back loading option, international legislative implications as the Basel Convention, responsibility and accountability as well as disinfestation measures must be addressed.
IWM DURING CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS- cont 3- Decontamination of equipment and vehicles must be considered to include management of decontamination wastes.- Consider the impact of the rotation of forces on a WM program.- Ensure the compliance of all participants in multi-national operations.- Ensure continuity of the WM program during operations by providing for human resources continuty.
IWM DURING CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS- cont 4- Consider mobile environmental technologies in the area of operations.- Plan and budget for mitigation and remediation.
INFORMATION MANAGEMENTAn information management system must be developed and maintained so that data ca be collected and processed.Personnel at various may require different info or analysis.The data collected must be verified and made available to all stakeholders.Responsibility must be assigned for the collection, processing and dissemination of info.
INFORMATION FOR WASTE MANAGERSWaste Managers require data to effectively manage their IWM program.Need a database that monitors waste generation, waste streams, waste types and quantities .Analyse this valuable info to determine trends and continuously improve the IWM program.
INFORMATION FOR WASTE MANAGERS cont 1The purpose of collecting IWM info is to :- ensure proper storage, handling and transportation of waste.- Support risk management.- ensure legal compliance- identify appropriate waste management practices
INFORMATION FOR WASTE MANAGERS cont 2The following types of info will assist in developing and maintaining the IWM plan- general info on non-hazardous waste- specific info on hazardous material (Hazmat) waste
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENTIWM always has room for improvement.Sharing of info helps to generate new processes and opportunities for waste minimisation.Partnership, education and awareness training, and links to other related programs contribute to continual improvement
PARTNERSHIPSPartnerships formed between govt spheres, the private sector and NGOs are important for implementation of IWM.Allow for the combining of resources and the sharing of knowledge and experiences for effective implementation of IWM programs.
EDUCATION AND AWARENESS TRAININGAwareness level regarding waste and waste management issues varies among members within the military.IWM EE&T programs must be included in the education and awareness plan of a unit.
LINK TO RISK AND SAFETY MANAGEMENTIncorrectly managed waste compromises human health and affects the quality of the environment.IWM must be linked to OHS and environmental health requirements such as safety of workers
QUESTIONSAny ?sEnige vrae?Ikhona imibuzo?Go na le dipotso? Go na le diputsiso?Zinwe mbudziso?Swinwane Swi Vutiso?