© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—7-1 111 © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-1 111 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> FWL 1.07-2 Module 7 Antennas </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-3 Overview This module will cover basic antenna theory, including directional and omni directional antenna selection. After discussing antenna theory and types of antennas, cables, connectors and accessories for antennas will be discussed. Additionally, important antenna design considerations, such as link engineering, path planning, and installation are also discussed. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-4 Learning Objectives Define how an antenna is used to propagate an RF signal. Define basic facts of EIRP. Define facts on FCC regulations for UNII-1, UNII- 2 and UNII-3. Identify what an isotropic antenna is and why it is used as a reference for other antennas. Identify Cisco Aironet antennas, their coverage patterns, and the proper polarization of each antenna. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-5 Key terms Lobes Directional Omnidirectional Beamwidth and Bandwidth Polarization Vertical Horizontal Diversity Plane (H and E) Fresnel Zone </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-6 Definition of Terms dB- Decibel- Ratio of one value to another dBx where x = m = compared to 1 milliwatt (0 dBm=1 mW) i = compare to isotropic antenna d = compared to dipole antenna w = compared to 1 watt (0 dBw = 1 watt) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-7 Antennas </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-8 Important Antenna Concepts </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-9 Beamwidth </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-10 Cisco Aironet 802.11b Antennas FCC requires that ALL antennas sold by a spread spectrum vendor be certified with the radio they are to be sold with All Cisco Aironet 802.11b supplied cables, RF devices and antennas have reverse polarity TNC (RP-TNC) connectors Cisco Aironet supplied antennas meet all FCC rules Wide variety of 802.11b antennas for most applications </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-11 Cisco Aironet 802.11a Antennas FCC requires that all radios utilizing the UNII-1 Band (5.15 GHz 5.25 GHz) must have non- removable or integrated antennas FCC allows radios utilizing the UNII-2 Band (5.25 GHz 5.35 GHz) to have external or removable antennas The Cisco Aironet 802.11a radios utilize both UNII- 1 and UNII-2 bands, therefore cannot have external or removable antennas Cisco 802.11a antennas are integrated into the radio module Cisco 1400 radios utilize UNII-3 bands, therefore have external or removable antennas </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-12 Antenna Concepts Directionality Omni (360 coverage) directional Directional (limited range of coverage) Gain Measured in dBi and dBd (0 dBd = 2.14 dBi) More gain means more coverage - in certain directions Polarization Antennas are used in the vertical polarization </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-13 Antenna Issues (cont.) Antennas have gain in particular directions Direction other than the main intended radiation pattern, are typically related to the main lobe gain </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-14 Antenna Gain If the gain of an antenna goes up, the coverage area or angle goes down Coverage areas or radiation patterns are measured in degrees Angles are referred to as beamwidth Horizontal measurement Vertical measurement </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-15 Beamwidth vs. Gain </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-16 Antenna Theory A theoretical isotropic antenna has a perfect 360 vertical and horizontal beamwidth This is a reference for ALL antennas </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-17 Antenna Theory- Dipole Energy lobes are pushed in from the top and bottom Higher gain Smaller vertical beamwidth Larger horizontal lobe Typical dipole pattern </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-18 High Gain Omni-Directionals More coverage area in a circular pattern Energy level directly above or below the antenna will become lower </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-19 Directional Antennas Lobes are pushed in a certain direction, causing the energy to be condensed in a particular area Very little energy is in the back side of a directional antenna Side View (Vertical Pattern) Top View (Horizontal Pattern) </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-20 FCC Part 15 Antenna Requirements 802.11b antenna Must use a unique, or proprietary connector Cisco Aironet products use RP-TNC connector Part 15 standards Approved antenna may exceed Exceeding may lead to interference problems Penalties could result in fines FCC standards apply to Part 15 users in the United States Different countries will have similar standards </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-21 2.4 GHz EIRP Rules for FCC Governed Areas Point-to-Multipoint FCC allows increasing the gain of an antenna/cable system if the transmitter power is reduced below 30 dBm in a 1:1 ratio Reduce Transmit Power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm and increase antenna/cable system gain by 1dBi Point-to-Point Maximum of 36 dBm EIRP Installations 30 dBm maximum transmitter power with 6 dBi in gain attributed to antenna and cable combination FCC allows exceeding the 36 dBm EIRP in Point-to- Point installations using the 3:1 rule Reduce Transmit Power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm and increase antenna/cable system gain by 3 dBi </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-22 2.4 GHz EIRP Rules for FCC Governed Areas (cont.) Transmitter Power EIRP Cisco Maximum 6 dBi 36 dBm 100 mW 20 dBm FCC Maximum Maximum Gain Transmitter dBm 1 Watt Point-to-Multipoint 30 dBm 16 dBi 36 dBm Transmitter Power EIRP Cisco Maximum 6 dBi 36 dBm 100 mW 20 dBm FCC Maximum Maximum Gain Transmitter dBm 1 Watt Point-to-Point 30 dBm 36 dBi 56 dBm The above values reflect the 1:1 rule The above values reflect the 3:1 rule </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-23 2.4 GHz EIRP Rules for ETSI Governed Countries Currently ETSI stipulates a maximum of 20 dBm EIRP on Point-to-Multipoint and Point- to-Point installations 17 dBm maximum transmitter power with 3 dBi in gain attributed to antenna and cable combination Professional installers are allowed to increase the gain of an antenna/cable system if the transmitter power is reduced below 17 dBm in a 1:1 ratio Reduce Transmit Power below maximum of 17 dBm by 1 dBm and increase antenna/cable system gain by 1 dBi </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-24 2.4 GHz EIRP Rules for non-FCC Governed Bodies Transmitter Power EIRP Cisco Integrated Antennas 3 dBi 20 dBm Reduced TX Power 30 mW 5 dBi 15 dBm 50 mW 17 dBm 7 dBi 13 dBm 20 dBi 13 dBi 20 dBm Gov. Body Maximum Maximum Gain Transmitter dBm Reduced TX Power 50 mW 20 mW 5 mW 1 mW Point-to-Multipoint and Point-to-Point 17 dBm 7 dBm 0 dBm 2.2 dBi 19.2 dBm 20 dBm The above values reflect the 1:1 rule Governing bodies with 20 dBm ceiling on EIRP: ETSI, France/Singapore, Israel, Mexico </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-25 802.11a and FCC 5 GHz Specifications FCC regulations for UNII-1 and UNII-2 UNII-1 FCC max 50 mW 802.11a max 40 mW With max 6 dBi antenna gain 802.11a max of 40 mW complies with all countries except Singapore (20 mW) UNII-2 FCC max 250 mW 802.11a max 200 mW </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-26 FCC Rules for 802.11a - Antennas FCC requires that all radios utilizing the UNII-1 Band (5.15 GHz 5.25 GHz) must have non- removable or integrated antennas FCC allows radios utilizing the UNII-2 Band (5.25 GHz 5.35 GHz) to have external or removable antennas FCC requires radios operating in both UNII-1 and UNII-2 bands must comply with antenna rules regulating UNII-1 band (including indoor use only) The Cisco Aironet 802.11a radios utilize both UNII-1 and UNII-2 bands, therefore cannot have external or removable antennas and must be used indoors only Cisco 802.11a antennas are integrated into the radio module </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-27 Omni directional Antennas </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-28 2.4 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 2 dBi Dipole "Standard Rubber Duck" </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-29 2.4 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 5.2 dBi Mast Mount Vertical </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-30 2.4 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 5.2 dBi Ceiling Mount </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-31 2.4 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 5.2 dBi Pillar Mount Diversity </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-32 2.4 GHz Diversity Omni-Directional Antennas 2 dBi Diversity Omni-Directional Ceiling Mount </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-33 2.4 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 12 dBi Omni-Directional (Outdoor only) </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-34 5 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 9 dBi omni (Vertical polarization) </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-35 5 GHz Integrated Antenna Innovative 5 GHz Combo Antenna: Wall Mount: Fold antenna flat against access point housing for 6 dBi gain patch antenna Ceiling Mount: Fold antenna out at a 90 angle for 5 dBi gain omni antenna In 5 dBi omni position In 6 dBi patch position </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-36 Mini-PCI Radio 2.2 dBi Omni-Directional Diversity Antennas Option 1: 802.11b Cisco Aironet 1100 Series Internal View </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-37 Cisco Aironet 1100 Series Antenna Details Cone of reduced coverage Sphere of influence Cone of reduced coverage </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-38 H-Plane Pattern E-Plane Pattern Top ViewSide View Floor Cisco Aironet 1100 Series Antenna Details (cont.) </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-39 Directional Antennas </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-40 2.4 GHz Diversity Antennas 6.5 dBi Diversity Patch Wall Mount 55 degree </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-41 2.4 GHz Directional Antennas (cont.) 6 dBi Patch Antenna 65 degree </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-42 2.4 GHz Directional Antennas (cont.) 8.5 dBi Patch Antenna 60 degree </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-43 2.4 GHz Directional Antennas (cont.) 13.5 dBi Yagi Antenna 25 degree </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-44 13.5 dBi Yagi AntennaInside view </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-45 2.4 GHz Directional Antennas (cont.) 21 dBi Parabolic Dish Antenna 12 degree </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-46 5 GHz Omni-Directional Antennas 28 dBi dish (H or V polarization) </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-47 5 GHz Antenna 9.5 dBi sector (H or V polarization) </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-48 Cable and Accessories </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-49 2.4 GHz Accessories </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-50 RP-TNC Connectors </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-51 Lightning Arrestor Designed to protect LAN devices from static electricity and lightning surges that travel on coax transmission lines RP-TNC connectors used on all Cisco Antennas To Antenna Ground Wire From RF Device Lug Lockwasher Nut </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-52 Lightning Arrestor </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-53 Coax Connection Sealing Number one problems with bridges - water in the connectors Proper sealing is important Coax Seal is one product that is inexpensive and works great </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-54 1400 Accessories Antenna Alignment Assistance with status/alignment LEDs and RSSI port on outdoor unit Quick-hang mounting bracket supports weight of radio during installation process Complete solution provided with radio including: Power Injector LR Multi Function Mount 20 and 50 length of dual RG-6 cable Power supply and cord Coaxial sealant for all exposed connectors Corrosion proof gel for exposed metal surfaces Management via SNMP, Telnet CLI, HTTP Based upon 802.11a technology </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-55 1400 Power Injector LR Converts standard 10/100 baseT Ethernet RJ-45 interface to F-Type connector dual coaxial cable Power provided over dual coaxial cable with power discovery to protect other appliances Support for longer cable runs by resetting the 100 meter, 100baseT Ethernet timer, enabling total cable runs of 200 meters. Surge protection provided at the F-Type connectors to protect infrastructure devices </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-56 Link Engineering and RF Path Planning </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.07-57 Path Considerations Radio line of sight Earth bulge Fresnel zone Antenna and cabling Data rate </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> 20...</li></ul>

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