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<ul><li> 1. WHITE PAPERw w w . i a o . o r gUSING SOCIAL MEDIAIN HIGHER EDUCATION:WHAT EDUCATORSSHOULD CONSIDER? </li> <li> 2. Table of Contents12346Executive SummaryUser-Generated Content (UGC), Social Media, and the Web 2.0 RevolutionTeaching with Social Media in Higher EducationUse of Social Media in Higher Education LiteraturePedagogy and UsefulnessKey Areas of Consideration for EducatorsOwnership and Intellectual PropertyPrivacy (FERPA) and SecurityAccess, Accessibility and ComplianceStability of TechnologyIntellectual Property Rights (meets) Copyright lawPushback and GuidelinesGuidelines for UseConclusionAbout IAO10111213 </li> <li> 3. Executive SummaryExecutive Summary1With faculty using a variety of software tools and free webapplications to enhance learning, communication, andengagement, the use of social media is on the rise inhigher education classrooms. Emerging Web 2.0 socialsoftware exists beyond traditional course managementsystems and potentially opens up the academicenvironment to a public space. By using these tools,academic content, discussions, and other interactions nolonger live in the safe, controlled world of academia butnow become public - living on public servers, retrievableby public search engines, where most, if not all, are ownedby for-prot and public companies.Rather than debating or discussing in any depth academicreasons for using social software tools for teaching, thispaper explores three big questions:What should educators know or consider as they employ these tools?What are the implications of moving academic activities to the public sphere?How do laws that govern our academic freedoms and behaviors apply in the online environment?En-route to answering these questions, this paper glosses over elements of the social stratosphere such as:user generated contentweb 2.0trends in usage of social channels in the academic worldpolicies inuencing social media usagepossible legal and ethical problems that it may proposesharing of responsibilitiescomplicity with concerned legislatureand implementation gatewaysa.b.c. </li> <li> 4. User-Generated Content (UGC), Social Media, and theWeb 2.0 Revolution(UGC), Social Media, and the Web 2.0 Revolution2The ubiquitous term social media has becomeinherently connected to the popular YouTube,Twitter and Facebook websites. Describing mediaas social implies that it exists in a social spaceand/or users interact in some way with the media.Social media can be described as a group ofInternet-based applications that build on theideological and technological foundations of Web2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange ofuser-generated content.User-generated content (UGC) is another term popularized by the possibilities of Web 2.0 applications, which nolonger limit users to being passive consumers of content but enables them to become active participants andeven authors in a collaborative social environment. To be considered UGC, the creative content must be openlypublished and accessible and developed outside the commercial sphere.The term Web 2.0 rst appeared in 2004 to describe the transition of the World Wide Web from a broadcast toa participatory medium, recognizing the unprecedented and ongoing collaboration between softwaredevelopers and end-users. This development, brought on by new and enhanced functionality, set the stage andcreated the infrastructure for social media to evolve. Web 2.0 structure and social networking applications allowusers to produce more easily and widely share UGC. </li> <li> 5. Teaching with Social Media in Higher EducationTeaching with Social Media in Higher Education3The Web 2.0 revolution has certainly entered education,carrying with it the notion that users add value throughtheir participation. It has changed the web browsingculture from passive to participatory with easily-createduser-generated content. This call to users to becomecontent creators radically challenges the conventionalauthority-driven teaching and learning model. Whenstudents actively participate in knowledge creation forthemselves and their peers by employing the tools theyuse every day, they are adding a new dimension to knowl-edge sharing and dening a new paradigm of learning.Teachers/educators are handing over some control topupils and embracing a culture of informal learning inkeeping with the changing ways of education in the 21stcentury.Using technology to accommodate students dierent learning styles is not novel. The strength of social mediaapplications is that they oer an assortment of tools that learners can mix and match to best suit their individuallearning styles and increase their academic success. Further, such technologies are typically freely accessible,easy to incorporate, and have a minimal learning curve to master. Learning environments can become personal-ized, and faculty can enhance their pedagogical techniques by using tools to extend class engagement beyonddesignated class time and encourage quality participation by students.Some faculty members are still reluctant to use their campus learning management systems while some arefrustrated with their limitations and proprietary nature. The constant evolution of online education haschallenged educators to develop eective delivery methods that go beyond click and read while enhancingstudent learning. Advocates feel that the wide acceptance of social media sites outside the higher educationarena establishes a congruity easily transferable to community building in e-learning, which has the potential totransform higher education as a whole. Then there are the multiple benets for using social networking software,including, retention, socialization, collaborative learning, student engagement, sense of control and ownership,along with a list of other perks for students and instructors. </li> <li> 6. Use of Social Media in Higher Education Literature4There have been many anecdotal articles published in the last eight to ten years on the use of social media andthe incorporation of UGC in both K-12 and higher education classrooms. More recently, in-depth theoreticaldiscussions and research results from case studies and experimental studies have appeared.Pedagogy and UsefulnessEnough experimentation has taken place in the classroom that studies have now been published investigatingpedagogy and actual usefulness of Web 2.0 tools, including some discussions of outcomes. Consider this, anevaluation of collaborative learning by students who use a wiki to create user-generated content for theirlearning experience. Despite students hesitation to create work in a public setting, or to work as a group and thelimitations of evaluating individual contributions, they still felt the tool held great potential to transform educa-tion. They emphasized that the primary benet of using the tool is for collaboration or extending engagementoutside the classroom and advised teachers to act only as facilitators or moderators in this environment.A study examined faculty adoption of Web 2.0 applications by investigating faculty members knowledge andperceptions of the tools. It also considered actual use factors that inuence adoption. Results indicated that whilea majority of faculty members were aware of the pedagogical benets these tools can oer, a discontinuationoccurs when it comes to actual adoption or future plans to incorporate them into their teaching. According tothe study, faculty attitudes strongly predicted whether or not they actually adopted a new method. Theserecommendations called on administrators to promote the use of new social software, emphasizing theirgradual learning curve and congruity with current practices. The conclusion points out that an eort should bemade to build educators overall condence and comfort with new technologies.In-depth case studies of three dierent classroom use occurrences were conducted, exploring from a pedagogi-cal perspective how higher education has been implementing these technologies. They concluded that facultyand students are approaching new tools and methods with some caution. They attributed this to the inherentslow-to-adopt-change nature of academia and its unwillingness to stray from the traditional models. Despitethis, the researchers were encouraged that higher education institutions have begun to recognize social mediasimmense possibilities.Twitter has impacted student engagement and aected student grades. It is being used to extend discussionbeyond the classroom by having students participate in panel discussions, submit reactions to readings and theirservice work observations. Twitter ensures a signicantly greater engagement in group activity and allowsstudents to opine on topics with a greater degree of freedom. Such facts can and should serve as evidence tosupport the educational usefulness of the tool and social media as a means to reach higher educationaloutcomes.The many chapters of Cutting-Edge Social Media Approaches to Business Education (2010) are authored byvarious educators who detail their experiences with using Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and other common socialmedia sites in their teaching. Several authors investigate learning styles and the connection between pedagogyUse of Social Media in Higher Education Literature </li> <li> 7. Use of Social Media in Higher Education Literature5and tool-specic advantages. The editor argues the case in the rst chapter that business students will beexpected by future employers to be procient with new cutting edge technologies for business communication.Individuals displaying these prociencies are certain to have advantages over students who havent had oppor-tunities to develop these skills.The European Commission, interested in promoting innovation in higher education, has funded a three yeariCamp research project which looks into how Web 2.0 technologies can be implemented in higher educationsettings. This has resulted in the free published handbook, How to Use Social Software in Higher Education. Thehandbook is aimed at educators who are interested in incorporating social software into the learning process. Ittakes a constructivist pedagogical approach oering information about teaching styles and dierent softwaretools connected to the learning activities they support. The iCamp Project foresees that use of these tools cantransform learning in higher education.These studies are just a few from the burgeoning discussion taking place in academia, a discussion which hasbegun to examine this new paradigm with increased scrutiny and formality. While most of this literature consid-ers the use of social media in education from a theoretical or educational pedagogical view, the remainder of thisarticle will provide practical guidance for faculty interested in incorporating social media tools in general, anduser-generated content more specically, into their teaching. This is a chance to pause and consider some of theimplications that arise when moving academic activities to the public sphere. </li> <li> 8. Key Areas of Consideration for Educators6The numerous books and articles that have already been published by enthusiasts detailing how social mediaand UGC can be used in classrooms are primarily written by education reform advocates and early adopters.These authors share realistic examples while trying to demonstrate how these new tools can transform teaching,learning and education as a whole. Missing from this dialogue, however, is discussion of how best to tackle someof the practical, less paradigm-shifting questions about ownership, privacy and security, access, accessibility andcompliance, stability of technology, intellectual property rights, and copyright law.Ownership and Intellectual PropertyMoreover, learning must take place in the collective, not just on the part of individuals. Its how formal andinformal leaders work together that determines whether or not organizations succeed in implementingstrategies and adapting to change, not individual leaders acting alone. Leadership development activities mustchange the context within which leading takes place, not simply the mindsets or capabilities of individualleaders. While capable individuals are the foundation for success, organizations require coordinated action toimprove eectiveness or shift directions. Individual development and coaching will only get the organization sofar; breakthroughs require attention to leadership cultures and collective leadership capabilities.A discussion of ownership in academia is synonymous with addressing intellectual property (IP), a term that hasbecome increasing common in the popular media. The question really is one of ownership and rights: who ownsnot only the tangible item that is created, but the intellectual concepts, ideas or processes behind the creativework or property? Dictionary denitions refer to concepts of property rights that extend to ideas, inventions orprocesses--that is, creative works of the mind that may not have any tangible physical form (OED, 2010).The examination of IP rights in the real world, however, is rapidly becoming a challenging and active legal area.In higher education IP is usually handled with specic policies, often negotiated and connected to bargainingcontracts that determine who owns the work that gets created by faculty and sta and which detail agreementsregarding inventions that can be trademarked. Student ownership, on the other hand, occupies a gray area.There is no standard way of addressing the intellectual property rights of student work. Many universities assumeownership of student-generated work, usually those research projects that are co-sponsored by faculty and areprimarily created using university resources.Before the ability to digitally create and collaborate or share work over the Internet, the ownership and use ofanothers copyrighted creation was pretty straightforward. Now days, most solutions addressing this issue arechallenged by many student advocates as a breach of their copyrights. The IP debate has sparked discussionsacross...</li></ul>