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Introduction to Wines Introduction to Wines of the World of the World Sherry, Port Port, and Fortified Wines

Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

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Page 1: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Introduction to Wines of Introduction to Wines of the Worldthe World

Sherry, PortPort, and Fortified Wines

Page 2: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

SHERRY SHERRY PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION

Spain

Page 3: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

THE WORLD WINE PRODUCING AREASTHE WORLD WINE PRODUCING AREAS

EQUATOR

50N

30N

30S

50S

Wine Producing Areas

AUSTRALIA

NEW ZEALAND

SOUTHAFRICA

RUSSIA

CHINA

NORTHAFRICA

EUROPE

CANADA

NORTHAMERICA

SOUTHAMERICA

CALIFORNIA

CHILE

BRAZIL

ARGENTINA

Page 4: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

France Germany Italy Spain Portugal

QUALITY WINES (QWPSR)

Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée(AC/AOC)

Qualitätswein mit Prädikat(QmP)

Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita

(DOCG)

Denominación de Origen Calificada(DOCa)

Denominação de Origem Controlada

(DOC)

Denominazione di Origine Controllata

(DOC)

Denominación de Origen(DO)

Vin Delimités de Qualité Supérieure(VDQS)

Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiet

(QbA)

Vinhos de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VCIG)

Indicação de Proveniencia Regulamentada

(IPR)

TABLE WINES

Vin de Pays(VdP)

Landwein Indicazione Geografica Tipica(IGT)

Vino de la Tierra(VdlT)

Vinho Regional(VR)

Vin de Table(VdT)

Tafelwein Vino da Tavola(VdT)

Vino de Mesa(VdM)

Vinho de Mesa(VdM)

Page 5: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 6: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 7: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

SherrySherryIn the southwest of Spain in the

province of Andalusia,- land of TapasInfluenced by the Phonecians in 1100

BCXera, the Phonecian name for the

region where the modern city of Jerez in Spain is now located.

711 AD - Moorish occupation of Spain began and lasted for 5 centuries

History of trade with EnglandFortified wine for storage and travel

Page 8: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Sherry, Xeres, JerezSherry, Xeres, JerezSherry, also listed as Xeres, or Jerez can

all be labeled on Sherry bottles and all refer to the wine known in English as Sherry

Jerez is the D.O. (Denomination of Origin)Fortified wine - sherry’s alcoholic level is

raised to between 15 and 22 percent with the addition of neutral spirits

Allowed to oxidize to varying degrees depending on the type of the wine being made

Flavors can vary from very dry to ultra sweet

Page 9: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Palomino, Moscatel Palomino, Moscatel and Pedro Ximenezand Pedro XimenezPalomino is the

main grape variety, comprising about 95 percent of all sherries

Pedro Ximenez, a sweeter grape, also made into a sherry by the same name

Moscatel (Muscat) also used

Page 10: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

SoilsSoilsThe soil plays an important role in the

quality and characteristics of the wine3 types of soil in Jerez: 1.Albarriza – (alba – white from Latin)2.Barro – Clay3.Arena – SandThe amount of calcium carbonate is the

differenceThe higher the calcium carbonate present

the better the soil is for the wineThe richest deposits of calcium carbonate

are found in the Albarriza zoneCalcium carbonate can range from 30% to

80%

Page 11: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Palomino grape cluster

Pedro Ximenez grapes

Moscatel Grapes

Soil Samples from Jerez DO

Page 12: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 13: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Harvesting the GrapesHarvesting the GrapesMediterranean climate summer heat often

above 100ºF - moderated by Atlantic Ocean westerly breezes

Palomino and Pedro Ximenez grapes thrive in this climate

Roots search deep into the earth for water from spring rains

Hot climate produces massive clusters of grapes

Concentrated sugars by picking late

Page 14: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 15: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

FermentationFermentationInitial fermentation is about a week to

ten days – very tumultuous – fermented to dryness

Lightly fortified and racked into casksThree basic types of Sherry – a)Finob)Amontilladoc)OlorosoThe Cellar master will taste each wine

looking for “attributes” to classify it

Page 16: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 17: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

FlorFlorA yeast called "flor" (flower) develops

on the surface of the Sherry resting in the casks

Flor grows on the wines destined to become Finos, leaving the wine very dry and crisp

Flor grows less fully on the Olorosos and Amontillados

After maturation(usually one or two years), wines are placed in a solera for aging

Page 18: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

SoleraSoleraThe solera is formed by multiple

rows of 600 liter old American oak barrels- butts

The stack is four or five rows of barrels high

The solera may contain as many as fourteen rows

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Soleras and CriaderasSoleras and CriaderasThe solera system oak casks rest in bodegasBodegas are high-roofed buildings, quiet and

cool, where the wines have time to slowly mature

When wine is needed for bottling, a little is drawn off from the oldest casks called the "soleras"

The soleras are topped-up with wine drawn from the next oldest casks

Each row of criaderas is re-filled from the one above it

"running the scales" - "canoe" and "sprinkler"  - protecting the flor

The wine in barrel begins to “Educate" the Sherry added to it

Page 20: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 21: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Only 30 PercentOnly 30 PercentSherry is not the product of any

one year, the solera system ensures that and by law only 30percent of the solera can be drawn off each year

Page 22: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Fino and Manzanilla Fino and Manzanilla

Fino and Manzanilla - dry styled sherries are made by allowing the flor to bloom in the barrels

Required alcohol content is 15% - 19% abv (up to 18% in Finos)

Finos are made inland where it is drier

Manzanillas must be made on the humid coast in Sanlúcar de Barrameda

Page 23: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

AmontilladoAmontillado

Amontillados - Fino sherries fortified to 17% then into another solera without flor

Amber-colored - aromas of hazelnut, mildly tangy, soft fruit and full in the mouth, - alcohol content of between 16º and 22º

Page 24: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

OlorosoOloroso

Made with slightly higher alcohol fortified so that flor could not exist

Amber to mahogany in color, with a strong aroma reminiscent of walnuts, full-bodied, with an alcohol content of between 17º and 22º.

Oloroso sherries go through the solera more slowly – developing deep caramel flavors

May be dry, or it may be lightly sweetened with a bit of the juice from Pedro Ximenez wine

Page 25: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Palo CortadoPalo CortadoA bright mahogany-colored wine, with a

bouquet suggestive of hazelnuts and a dry palate.

special style – comes from an early transition from development under flor to oxidative

After a few months development under flor, it is fortified to 18-20% abv - halfway between Amontillado and Oloroso

A Palo Cortado is recognized by an aroma similar to Amontillado - body more like Oloroso

high content of malic acid leads to a malolactic fermentation - lactic quality in this style

Alcohol content varies between 17º and 22º.

Page 26: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Cream Sherries &Cream Sherries &Pedro XimenezPedro Ximenez

Olorosos that are sweetened up to 15 percent with Pedro Ximenez are known as cream sherries

Richer - with sweet dried fruit intensity and thicker bodies

Pedro Ximenez - another type of Oloroso

made from Pedro Ximenez grapes - can be as sweet as late harvest or ice wines and thicker in texture

Page 27: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 28: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

MARSALAMARSALA

Vin Santo

Page 29: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

MarsalaMarsalaMarsala Sicily’s fortified wineDOC in and around the seaside

town of MarsalaDry to sweet stylesQuality Marsala is labeled

“superiore” or “vergine” Usually fortified to 17 or 18%

abvMade in a Solera

Page 30: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 31: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

GrapesGrapesWhite grape varieties:a)Grillo b)Catarratto Biancoc) Inzoliad)DamaschinoRed grape varieties:a)Perricone b)Calabresec)Nerellod)Mascalesee)Nero d’Avola

Page 32: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Oro, Ambra, RubinoOro, Ambra, RubinoThree colors of Marsalaoro (golden)ambra (amber)rubino (red) – the rarest Each can be made with all the

different levels of sweetnesseach is fortified to 17 or 18

percent

Page 33: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Types of MarsalaTypes of Marsala

Fine: 17° alcohol, aged 1 yr Superiore: 18° alcohol, aged 2 years Superiore Riserva: 18° alcohol, aged

4 years Vergine Soleras: 18° alcohol, aged 5

years Vergine Stravecchio - highest level

allows no cotto, and a minimum of 10 years of wood aging

Page 34: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Marsala PairingsMarsala PairingsMarsala was traditionally served

between the first and second courses.

It is now also served, chilled, with Parmesan (stravecchio), Gorgonzola, Roquefort and other, spicy cheeses

Page 35: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Vin SantoVin SantoVin Santo – Tuscany’s fortified

wineSome comes from the

surrounding regions

“Holy Wine” – discovered in 1439It’s full bodied, but still light, and

is classically combined with biscotti or fruit

Page 36: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

GrapesGrapesWhite varieties:a)Malvasiab)Trebbianoc)San colombano

Page 37: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 38: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Dried grapes fermentedDried grapes fermentedMore than three months (usually

January,) good, unmolded grapes are selected and pressed

Liquid - put in small barrels out of cherry, oak or chestnut wood- 'caratelli'

Filled up to 75% - sealed with cement allows high pressure to develop during fermentation

Fermentation is slow - three years high alcohol content of approximately

16% abv

Page 39: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

MADEIRAMADEIRA

Portugal

Page 40: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

MadeiraMadeiraMadeira - a small, island and

province of Portugal375 miles west of Morocco and

about 500 miles from PortugalFortified wine usually 17 to 20 %

abv Neutral grape spirits are added

to the wine before it is finished fermenting

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Page 42: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

EstafugemEstafugemEstafugem - process Madeira goes

through to produce it’s unique character

Method involves heating the fortified wines to an average temperature of 105 degrees F for three to six months

The best Madeiras will age this way for 25 years or more - only about 3 percent of all Madeiras

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Oxidative QualityOxidative QualityAllowed to oxidize as it heats up -

head space left in each barrelMay be aged for 20 years or

more after the heating process but before blending and bottling.

Some Madeiras are 40 years old or more

Page 44: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Grape VarietiesGrape VarietiesRed grapes:a)Tinta Negra MoleWhite grapes a)Sercialb)Verdelhoc)Buald)Malmsey (Malvasia) Grape names are also used to

designate various styles of Madeira

Page 45: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Styles of MadeiraStyles of Madeira

Sercial, the driest, is made from grapes of the same name that are grown in the coolest vineyards at high altitudes

Verdelho, the medium-dry style is made from verdelho grapes grown in warmer vineyards. The style is more full-bodied than the sercials

Bual is a medium-rich style that comes from the bual grapes grown in warmer vineyards, these produce concentrated madeiras with rich sweetness

Malmsey, the richest, sweetest style coming from malvasia grapes that are grown in the warmest locations closest to sea level

Page 46: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Quality LevelsQuality LevelsBulk, - usually 1 -2 years oldRainwater – 3 years old5, 10 and 15 year old - solera

madeirasVintage madeiras.

Page 47: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Port

Page 48: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

PortPortPortugal is the home of port, although

the firms that produce port were started and run by the British. The town of Oporto is where port derives it’s name. This major port City on the Atlantic and at the mouth of the Douro River was a perfect export city for centuries.

Wine needed to be fortified by neutral grape spirits in order to be transported by ships throughout the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. This led indirectly to the discovery of Port.

Page 49: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Oporto city

Page 50: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

PortPortPort comes form only one region70 mile-long Port region in the Douro River

valleyMore than 83,000 vineyard properties in

the Douro, owned by about 28,500 growersDivided into three sub-zones, from west to

east a)Lower Corgob)Upper Corgoc)Douro SuperioreBetter quality ports come from the Upper

Corgo and the Douro Superiore which extends to the Spanish border.

Page 51: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 52: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

GrapesGrapesTouriga National: deep color, tannic,

strong black fruit character - High quality

Touriga Francesa: lighter, refined and fragrant

Adds softness and roundnessTinta Roriz: fresh, lighter color, adds

structure and length, red cherry aroma

Tinta Barroca: deep color, high sugar content

Tinta Cao: fine flavor, adds structure for age ability

Page 53: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 54: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

FermentationFermentationRapid extraction of color, still traditionally

done bytreading, but now more commonly done by robotictreading or punch down

Quick fermentation to between 6-9 degrees of alcohol

Fortification with grape spiritsResults in a stopped fermentation with about

10% residual sugar andfinished alcohol of around 20%

Page 55: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

MaturationMaturation

Following the next spring, wine is transferred to the shipper’s lodges in Vila Nova da Gaia

The milder and damper climate is better suited for ageing

Based on the quality of the base wine, length of barrel maturation and optional filtration a variety of styles are available

Page 56: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Barcos RabelosBarcos RabelosOporto in northern Portugal is well known for

its characteristic wine sailboats, the "Barcos Rabelos" used to ship Port downstream from the vineyards.

The journey was dangerous, but even despite the introduction of the Port train in the late 1800's, the Barcos Rabelos continued to be used for transporting Port until the 1960's.

These days, the famous boats are used for an annual race, held in Oporto in June every year.

Page 57: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 58: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Page 59: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Styles of PortStyles of Port

There are 10 different styles of port, although all port falls into one of two major categories:

Ruby : bottled aged ports Tawny : wood aged ports

Page 60: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Port Styles are divided into two Port Styles are divided into two categories:categories:

Bottle aged and Wood Bottle aged and Wood agedaged

Page 61: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Young Ruby PortsYoung Ruby PortsRuby ports is the least complex

style of the reds and the least expensive as well

Also known as fine ruby these ports are almost never aged in bottle and are released immediately

Page 62: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Aged Ruby PortsAged Ruby Ports Late Bottled Vintage Traditional :

from a single vintage, bottled unfiltered at four years. Requires ageing.

Vintage Port: only in exceptional years, highest quality Port (less than 2% of all Port production)Bottled after two years in cask, requires long (15-20 years) ageing

Single Quinta: similar to vintage but from a single vineyard. Produced in years when a full vintage declaration is not sought

Page 63: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Young Tawny PortsYoung Tawny PortsYoung tawny ports like ruby

ports are less than three years old and uncomplicated. They are usually not in contact with the skins of the grapes for very long and some are blended with white ports.

Page 64: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Aged Tawny PortsAged Tawny PortsAged tawny ports are designated on

the label as, either 10, 20, 30 or 40 years old

Aging in oak for the average of the amount of time listed on the label

Colheita: Vintaged Tawny - matured in cask for a minimum of eight years

Page 65: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Vintage PortVintage PortVintage port represents only 2 to

3 percent of the total production and is make only in very good years

Shippers declare a vintage - aged for 2 years in barrel and then in bottle by the shipper and the consumer

The first vintage ports were listed around 1734

Page 66: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Crusted PortCrusted PortCrusted Port is named because

of the heavy crust or sediment in the bottle.

Blends of 3 or 4 years and bottled unfiltered.

Page 67: Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

Understanding LabelsUnderstanding Labels