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Human Resource Management 13 th Edition Chapter 5 Recruitment 5-1 Copyright © [2014] Pearson Education

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Human Resource Management 13th Edition

Chapter 5Recruitment

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Learning Objectives• Describe the possibility of contingent workers

replacing full-time employees.

• Define recruitment and explain alternatives to recruitment.

• Explain the external environment of recruitment and describe how promotion policies influence recruitment.

• Describe the recruitment process and explain internal recruitment methods.

• Identify external recruitment sources.

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Learning Objectives (Cont.)• Explain the impact of mobile HR recruiting.• Describe online recruitment methods and

discuss the possibility of job search scams.• Identify traditional external recruitment methods.• Describe how recruitment methods and sources

are tailored to each other.• Define reshoring and explain why some firms

are rejecting outsourcing and returning the lost jobs to the United States.

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HRM In Action: Will Contingent Workers Replace Full-time Employees?

• Disposable American workforce• Work as part-timers, temporaries,

or independent contractors• Human equivalents of just-in-time

inventory• Organizations have increased their

use of contingent workers

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• Process of attracting individuals:– On a timely basis– In sufficient numbers– With appropriate qualifications

• Encouraging them to apply for jobs

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Alternatives to Recruitment

• Outsourcing and Offshoring

• Contingent workers

• Professional employer organizations (employee leasing)

• Overtime

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Outsourcing and Offshoring

• Outsourcing: Transfers responsibility to external provider

• Offshoring: Migration of all or a significant part of development, maintenance, and delivery of services to vendor located in another country

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• Moving jobs not to another country but to lower cost American cities

• Government may require onshore handling of certain financial, health, and defense data

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• Most commonly used method of meeting short-term fluctuations in work volume

• Avoids recruitment, selection, and training costs

• Employees benefit from increased profit

• Potential problems

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External Environment of Recruitment

• Labor market conditions• Active or passive job seekers

• Legal considerations

• Corporate image

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Labor Market Conditions

• Demand for and supply of specific skills

• Labor market for many professional and technical positions is global

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Labor Market Conditions (Cont.)

• Possessing a college degree used to be passport to securing a good job

• Skills to perform crafts such as welders, pipe fitters, painters, and machinists are needed

• New technology may require that workers have a specialized degree

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Active or Passive Job Seekers

• Active job seekers: Committed to finding another job

• Passive candidates: Typically employed, satisfied with their employer, and content in their current role

• Recruitment methods often differ

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Legal Considerations

• Candidate and employer first make contact during recruitment

• Essential to emphasize nondiscriminatory practices

• Labor Department has issued guidelines concerning online recruiting policies

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Labor Department Guidelines

• Keep detailed records

• Identify criteria used

• Be able to explain why a person with protected status was not hired

• Companies with more than 100 employees keep records for a minimum of 2 years

• 50 employees if dealing with the OFCCP

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Labor Department Guidelines (Cont.)

• Threshold coverage is 50 employees if dealing with OFCCP

• Enables compilation of demographic data

• Employers must keep records of any and all expressions of interest through the Internet

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OFCCP Criteria to Determine Whether an Individual Is an Internet Applicant

• Job seeker expressed interest through Internet

• Employer considers job seeker for employment

• Job seeker has indicated he or she meets position’s qualifications

• Applicant has not indicated he or she is no longer interested in position

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Promotion From Within

• Filling vacancies above entry-level positions with current employees

• Incentive to strive for advancement

• Organization usually aware of employees’ capabilities

• Good goal: 80%

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Trends & Innovations: Social Media Recruiting

• If you are not using social media to get recruits, your competitors likely are

• Sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn , Google+, YouTube and blogging are available to utilize social media recruiting

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Employee Requisition

• Recruitment begins with employee requisition.

• Document specifies: – Job title– Department– Date employee is needed – Other details

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RECRUITMENT PROCESS External EnvironmentInternal Environment

Human Resource Planning

Alternatives to Recruitment

Employee Requisition

Internal Sources

Internal Methods

External Sources

External Methods

Recruited Individuals

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Recruitment Sources and Methods

• Recruitment sources: Places where qualified individuals are found

• Recruitment methods: Means by which potential employees can be attracted to firm

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Internal Recruitment Methods

• Human resource databases

• Job posting

• Job bidding

• Internet• Intranet

• Employee referral

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Job Posting and Job Bidding

• Job posting: Procedure to inform employees of existing job openings

• Job bidding: Procedure that permits individuals in organization to apply for posted job

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Employee Referrals

• Number-one way workers find a job • Referrals better qualified and stay on job

longer• Recruit new hires through employee-referral

incentive programs

• Employee enlistment

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Why External Recruitment Is Needed

• Fill entry-level jobs

• Acquire skills not possessed by current employees

• Obtain employees with different backgrounds to provide diversity of ideas

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External Recruitment Sources

• High schools and vocational schools• Community colleges• Colleges and universities• Competitors in the labor market• Former employees • Unemployed workers• Military personnel• Self-employed workers• Ex-offenders

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High Schools and Vocational Schools

• Clerical and other entry-level employees

• Some companies work with schools

• Companies may loan employees to schools

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Community Colleges

• Sensitive to specific employment needs in local labor market

• Graduate highly sought-after students with marketable skills

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Colleges and Universities

• Professional, technical, and management employees

• Placement directors, faculty, and administrators

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Competitors in the Labor Market

• Used when relevant experience is needed

• Smaller firms look for employees trained by larger organizations

• Poaching: Actively recruiting employees from competitors

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Former Employees

• In past, punished with no-return policies

• Smart employers try to get their best ex-employees to come back

• Also called boomeranging

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Unemployed Workers

• Qualified applicants become unemployed every day

• Companies:– Go out of business

– Cut back operations

– Merge with other firms

• Employees are laid off

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Military Personnel

• Proven work history

• Flexible, motivated, drug free

• Goal and team oriented

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Self-Employed Workers

• Technical

• Professional• Administrative

• Entrepreneurial

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• Ex-offenders are a viable labor pool for restaurants

• Often work third shift

• Some organizations actively support hiring of ex-offenders

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Mobile Recruiting

• Recruiting via mobile technology is moving at light-speed

• Mobile recruiting has generated blogs, webinars, seminars, e-newsletters, and online groups committed to learning more

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Online Recruitment

• Biggest change in way that organizations recruit

• Revolutionized the way companies recruit and job-seekers find jobs

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Internet Recruiter

• Also called cyber recruiter

• The more a company recruits on Internet, the greater the need for Internet recruiters.

• High-tech firms have greatest needs

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Virtual Job Fair

• Online recruiting method to attract large number of applicants

• Attracts wider range of applicants than might attend live fair

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Corporate Career Website

• Accessible from company homepage • Lists company positions available• Provides way for applicants to apply for

specific jobs• Major resource for job seekers and

companies• Should be used as a selling device

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Weblogs (Blogs)

• Use Google or a blog search engine• Type in a key phrase, like “marketing


• Can be used for stealthy background checks

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General-Purpose Job Boards

• Job seekers can search for jobs by: – Category– Experience– Education– Location– Any combination of categories

• Monster.com

• CareerBuilder.com

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NACElink Network

• Alliance among National Association of Colleges and Employers, DirectEmployers Association, and Symplicity Corporation

• National recruiting network • Suite of web-based recruiting and

career services

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• Network of employment Web sites where any company can list job openings for free

• Backed by nearly 600 hundred industrial companies

• Examples: Nurse.jobs, Attorney.Jobs, HR.Jobs, and Sales.Jobs

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• Certain large companies have begun pooling job candidates

• Those passed over by one company are invited to submit their résumés to the AllianceQ database

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Niche Sites

• Websites that cater to a specific profession

• A site for virtually everyone

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Contract Workers’ Sites

• Sites are available to assist contract workers

• These let workers advertise skills, set their price, and pick employers

• Freelance.com

• Guru.com

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Hourly Workers’ Job Sites

• Attract blue-collar and service workers

• Most pursue jobs by filling out applications

• Allow job-seekers to build applications

• Often have bilingual call center

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Job Search Scams

• Attempt to steal personal information and set up fraudulent credit-card accounts

• Often crooks search for potential victims through posting high paying job on popular job-search Web sites

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Traditional External Recruitment Methods

• Media advertising• Employment agencies

—private and public• Recruiters• Job fairs• Internships• Executive search


• Professional associations

• Unsolicited applicants• Open houses• Event recruiting• Sign-on bonuses• Competitive games

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Media Advertising

• Media such as:– Radio– Newspaper– Television– Industry publications

• Previous experiences suggest the best approach

• Newspaper advertising has declined because of online recruiting

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Private Employment Agencies

• Often called headhunters

• Best known for recruiting white-collar employees

• Used for virtually every kind of position

• Not paid until a person is placed

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Public Employment Agencies

• Operated by each state

• Receive policy direction from U.S. Employment Service

• Increasingly involved in matching people with technical, professional, and managerial positions

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Used with:



•Community colleges

•Colleges and universities

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Job Fairs

• Attract large number of applicants to one location

• Opportunity to meet large number of candidates in short time

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• Places student in a temporary job

• No obligation

• Temporary job for summer

• Part-time job during school year• Students bridge gap from theory to


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Executive Search Firms

• Locate experienced professionals and executives

• Target ideal candidates • Find those not actively looking for a job

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Professional Organizations

• Recruitment and placement services• Society for Human Resource

Management operates job referral service

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Unsolicited Applicants

• Organization that has reputation of being a good place to work, may be able to attract qualified prospects even without extensive recruitment efforts

• Go to the firm’s Web site and walk in by making an application online

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Open Houses

• Pair potential hires and managers in warm, casual environment

• Encourage on-the-spot job offers

• Cheaper and faster than agencies

• May attract more unqualified


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Event Recruiting

• Opportunity to promote image of company

• Recruiters go to events that the people firm is seeking attend

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Sign-On Bonuses

• Used where severe shortages of highly skilled workers exist

• Amounts vary dramatically

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Competitive Games

• Unique way to get individuals interested in applying for technical positions

• Google makes use of recruiting games

• TopCoder creates software coding competitions

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Tailoring Recruitment Methods to Sources

• Tailored to each firm’s needs

• Sources and methods vary according to position being filled

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Methods and Sources of Recruitment for an Information Technology Manager

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A Global Perspective: Reshoring

• Reverse of offshoring and involves bringing work back to the United States

• Need to calculate the real impact of offshoring because there are often hidden expenses

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