- 1. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND
TECHNOLOGY IN HAITI By: Sarah A. Lindstrom
- This presentation will show detailed information regarding the
digital divide of media access and education in Haiti versus the
- It explores education and media in Haiti and how media is
brought there and how it is used. Throughout this presentation, I
will show the importance of all individuals having access to media
as it promotes learning, growth, and opportunity.
3. What Do You Know About Haiti?
- Lets take a few steps back so that we can visualize who the
people of Haiti are and make aware to viewerstheir struggles as a
4. Haiti: An Overview 5. America The Resilient
- The social and political upheaval in Haiti has continued to
result in the lack of resources needed to sustain the people of
- In the wake of tragedies, America has remained resilient
throughout history and has continued to progress in not only the
economic sector, but in technological and educational
6. What Is The Digital Divide?
- " Digital Divide" refers to the gap between those who benefit
from digital technology and those who do not.
- It took digital-divide researchers a whole decade to figure out
that the real issue is not so much aboutaccessto digital technology
but about the benefitsderived fromaccess.
7. America the Rich
- Examining the situation more closely, it turns out that
prosperous countries such as America, have high-quality access to
digital technology because the 80/20 factor (in which eighty
percent of profit is made by serving the most affluent 20%) causes
technology designers to work hard at creating "solutions"
specifically for the affluent.
8. Haiti the Poor
- The poor are ignored because market forces assume that
designing solutions for them will not be profitable. The result is
that even where the poor are provided access to digital technology,
it is low-quality and merely localized versions of products and
services intended for the rich.
- Furthermore, the digital technologies they do have access to,
such as those that lure innocent villagers into vapid pop culture,
could be harmful rather than beneficial.
9. Why Closing the Divide Matters
- Closing the Digital Divide is a precondition for reducing
- Closing the Digital Divide is a precondition for emergency
- Closing the Digital Divide is a precondition for building Human
Capital through education.
10. Reducing Poverty
- Antipoverty experts believe that closing the Digital Divide is
not a top priority, arguing instead that the poor need clean water
and jobs before they need computers. However, what they do not
realize is that access to digital technology greatly enhances the
effectiveness and affordability of efforts to improve the water
supply, improve rural health and education, generate jobs and
address any of the other interrelated problems of poverty.
11. Emergency Response to Natural Disasters
- Having the proper access to technology in the media makes aware
the incidences of natural disasters and the help needed. Emergency
response is on point when access is made available as is
coordinating the delivery of aid and to communicate about what's
needed in terms of food, water, shelter, medical supplies and
12. Building Human Capital Through Education
- Technology offers a unique opportunity to extend learning to
those globally. It has the ability to teach in various languages as
well as connect students educationally through the internet, from
around the world.
- Projects like One Laptop per Child and 50x15 offer a partial
solution to the global digital divide; these projects tend to rely
heavily upon open standards and free open source software.
13. Types of Media the US
- Internet-based websites and access
14. Who Sponsors These Mediums?
- Many of the media are controlled by large for-profit
corporations who reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and
sale of copyrighted material. American media conglomerates tend to
be leading global players, generating large profits as well as
large criticism in many parts of the world.
15. Types of Media in Haiti The Mache Technology district is
more than 3 blocks of used electronic equipment, cameras, and other
items.People come to purchase electronic items which are usually
outdated, but at affordable prices. Most items are salvaged items,
repaired and resold. 16. Who Sponsors Their Mediums?
- The Haitian government is one of the biggest obstacles for
economic growth including bridging access to technology. Donations
from other countries are often the primary source for
- Haiti's physical infrastructure is poor -- roads are
inadequate, and basic services such as power and telecommunications
are frequently unavailable. The country also lacks a railroad
system, making the shipment of goods around the land a tedious and
17. Radio: Haitis Communication Tool
- Radio is Haiti's most important information medium; access to
the press is limited by low literacy levels.
- There are more than 250 private radio stations, with around 50
FM broadcasters in the capital alone, providing a full spectrum of
political views. But self-censorship is common, with journalists
trying to avoid offending commercial sponsors or politicians.
18. Media Rights
- The media rights body Reporters Without Borders said press
freedom improved "dramatically" after the fall of Jean-Bertrand
Aristide. The organization had put the former president on its list
of "predators of press freedom".
- But it warned in 2007 that impunity for attacks on media
workers could continue in the absence of an effective justice
- Amid the escalating violence in early 2004, radio and TV
stations were targeted by gangs from both sides of the political
divide. Studios and transmitters were destroyed.
- "In a global economy where the most valuable skill you can sell
is your knowledge, a good education is no longer just a pathway to
opportunity, it is a pre-requisite. That is why it will be the goal
of this Administration to ensure that every child has access to a
complete and competitive education from the day they are born to
the day they begin a career."
Education In America 20. The Land of the Free: The Role of
Technology in The Education of America
- Without question, both the education community and the broader
public community have long held great expectations for the role of
technology in teaching, learning, and instruction.
21. American Schools
- Although there are many educational institutions in America
that are considered private schools which require tuition, all
other schools in America are free to the public and give children
access to technology within the classroom.
22. How American Schools Utilize Technology
- New Skills for a Changing Economy
- Proven Improvements in Learning
- Opportunities for the Disabled
23. Higher Education
- Centers of higher education in the United States are variety of
institutions with a strong research base and funding that have led
them to develop as among the worlds most prestigious institutions
which are not only of vital importance to local students from
within America but also a great attraction for students around the
- What the educational system is like and how technology can
contribute in the educational growth of Haitians.
Education in Haiti 25. The Cost of Education
- Free public education is something most of us take for granted
in America. But in Haiti, the poorest country in the western
hemisphere, private schools are the only schools and very few
families can afford even the most modest tuition.
26. Facts on Education in Haiti
- Public education in Haiti has consistently proved problematic:
50% of children do not attend school or cannot attend school.
- Without qualified teachers, adequate textbooks, or access to
technology, the quality of education is generally poor.
- Poor test scores, grade repetition, and high dropout rates are
the obvious result.
- Lack of established human capital leads to and breeds poverty,
crime, and disease.
- Almost half of the child population in Haiti have never been to
school. The cost of education is a major problem. Most schools in
Haiti do not receive state support, and parents must pay school
fees, as well as uniform and book costs. Technology in the
classroom is the least of Haitis worries.
In Haiti, access to education is difficult even though it
isaright enshrined in the constitution and a fundamental to
tackling extreme poverty. 28. Benefits of Technology in The
- Easy-to-access course materials . Instructors can post the
course material or important information on a course website, which
means students can study at a time and location they prefer and can
obtain the study material very quickly
- Wide participation . Learning material can be used for long
distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience
29. Motivation & Writing
- Student motivation . Computer-based instruction can give
instant feedback to students and explain correct answers. Moreover,
a computer is patient and non-judgmental, which can give the
student motivation to continue learning.
- Improved student writing . According to some studies, the
students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is
exchanged over a computer network with students they know
30. Enhanced Comprehension & Structure
- Subjects made easier to learn . Many different types of
educational software are designed and developed to help children or
teenagers to learn specific subjects. Examples include pre-school
software, computer simulators, and graphics software
- A structure that is more amenable to measurement and
improvement of outcomes . With proper structuring it can become
easier to monitor and maintain student work while also quickly
gauging modifications to the instruction necessary to enhance
31. Fostering Educational Promise
- Each new wave of technologyfilm following the Second World War,
television from the 1950s onward, mainframe computers in the 1960s
and 1970s, desktop computers in the 1980s, and the Internet and
World Wide Web currentlyhas fostered great hopes of educational
promise among educators and others in public life.
32. Enhancing Opportunities
- Technology can also enhance the opportunities for communication
and community within education.
- The Internet expands opportunities for students and faculty to
create a community. Students can use e-mail to send direct
questions to the authors of materials they read in class. Faculty
can develop and maintain professional relationships with colleagues
across the state, the nation, or almost anywhere in the world.
- The Future of Technology in Haiti
Haiti Rewired 34. Rebuilding Communication
- Since the January 12 th , 2010 earthquake in Haiti,
technological advances for the country of Haiti have been halted
and now efforts are geared towards the rebuilding of what was
- Online maps, mobile phone donations, wikis and a slew of
websites are have been deployed as telecoms firms, technology
giants and startups set aside their rivalries and put the latest
tools to work to help earthquake-ravaged Haiti.
Donations for Haitis Technological Advancement 36. What is Being
- "Haiti's need for communications services is extraordinary and
urgent," said Julius Genachowski, chairman of the US Federal
- "It is vitally important that people on the ground in Haiti
have the communications capacity to conduct rescue and recovery
missions, connect with loved ones... and move forward with overall
recovery efforts," he said.
- Telecoms Without Borders deployed two emergency teams to set up
satellite facilities for use by emergency responders and planned
another network to allow people to make free two-minute calls
anywhere in the world to relatives.
37. The Future of Haiti Is In Our Hands
- Haiti needs to emerge from this natural disaster as a fully
functioning democracy with an economy that can sustain its people.
The commitments from the international community such as rebuilding
and improving the educational system with technology, must be
matched by a long-term, sustained delivery of those
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- Monroe, B.Crossing the Digital Divide: Race, Writing, and
Technology in the Classroom,The Teachers College Press, New York,
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Haiti-CBS [Video file]. Retrieved
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