- 1. SPEAKING BERTHA SAMANO O.
2. What is speaking?
- Speaking is a productive skill which involves using speech to express meanings to other people
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 3. Speaking Situations
- There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:
- partially interactive, and
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- Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner
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- Some speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces and body language whether or not he or she is being understood .
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- Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast .
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 7. Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:
- pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
- use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly enough so that people can understand what is said.
- use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, case, or gender.
- put words together in correct word order.
- use vocabulary appropriately
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- use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the relationship to the conversation partner.
- make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.
- make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.
- make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 9. PREPARING FOR COMMUNICATION
- Our goal in practising oral English is to develop students ability to communicate freely and spontaneously in English.To achieve this aim, we need to ask the following questions: What is real communication?How can we bring features of real communication into language practice?
- For many EFL learners, their main desire is to speak English. How then do we set about helping them with this goal?
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- We speak withfluencyandaccuracy.
- Fluencyis speaking at a normal speed, without hesitation, repetition or self-correction, and with smooth use of connected speech ( a continuous stream of sounds).
- Accuracyin speaking is the use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 11. Reception and Production
- The teaching of productive skills is closely bound up with receptive skill work.The two feed off each other in a number of ways.
- When a student produces a piece of language and sees how it turns out, that information is feed back in the acquisition process. Output becomes input.
- Look at the figure which is the circle of input and output.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 12. steps
- Pre communicative activities
- Introduce functions, vocabulary.
- Communicative interaction
- Feedback on their pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 13. REMEMBER!!
- Choose interesting topics for your students.
- Dont think much about your interests but about theirs!
- Once you have chosen your topic, create interest in it. Engage your students to it. Be enthusiastic.
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- Provide the necessary information and investigate the necessary to talk about it.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 15. Problems and solutions
- There are a number of reasons why students find language production difficult.
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- However there are a number of ways in which teachers can help students get as much out of speaking activities as possible.
- In the first place, we need to match the tasks we ask students to perform with their language level.
- This means ensuring that they have the minimumlanguage they would need to perform such a task.Secondly we need to ensure that there is a purpose to the task.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 17. Supply key language
- Help them with phrases or questions that will be helpful to for the task.
- Remember that language which students have only just met for the first time is often not available for instant usein spontaneous conversations,more exposure and practice is usually necessary before people can use new language fluently.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 18. Plan activities
- Plan production activities that will provoke the use of language which they have had a chance to absorb at an early stage.
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- Practice involving more than just single sentences, so that students have a chance to use combinations of different functions and structures.
- Encourage students to give a variety of responses, rather than a set answer.
- Give students a purpose for using language (discussion, games, problem solving, information gap activities).
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- Organize activities in pairs and small groups to give to give students the opportunity to use language in private, face to face interaction.
- These activities will complement other more structured-based practice and should involve your students in real communication.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 21. ERROR CORRECTION
- It is worth thinking about why errors occur, because this can help teachers decide what to do about them. The study of errors and their causes is callederror analysis .
- For each cause listed below, suggestions for the teacher are given in square brackets.
- 1. The learner makes an error because the learner has not had sufficient chance to observe the correct form or to develop sufficient knowledge of the language system. [Don't correct the learner but give more models and opportunities to observe.]
- 2. The learner makes an error because the learner has not observed the form correctly. [Give a little correction by showing the learner the difference between the correct form and the learner's error.]
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- 3 . The learner makes an error because of nervousness. [Don't correct. Use less threatening activities -- or, if and when appropriate, joke with the person/class/yourself to lighten the mood.]
- 4. The learner makes an error because the activity is difficult, that is, there are many things the learner has to think about during the activity. This is sometimes called cognitive overload. [Don't correct. Make the activity easier or give several chances to repeat the activity.]
- 5. The learner makes an error because the activity is confusing. Use of tongue twisters, for instance, for pronunciation can be confusing. [Don't correct. Improve the activity.]
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- 6. The learner makes an error because the learner is using patterns from the first language instead of the patterns from the second language. [Give some correction. If there has been plenty of opportunity to develop knowledge of the second language, then some time should be spent on correction to help the learner break out of making errors that are unlikely to change. Errors which are resistant to change are sometimes calledfossilized errorsand imaginative correction is often needed to break the fossilization. If there has not been a lot of opportunity to develop knowledge of the second language, correct by telling the learner what to look for when observing people using the second language. This is calledconsciousness raising . It does not actually teach the correct form but makes the learner more aware of what to look for to learn it.]
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- 7 . The learner makes an error because the learner has been copying incorrect models. [Correct the learner and provide better models.]
- This range of causes shows that the teacher should not rush into error correction, but should consider whether the error is worth the interruption and, if it is, the teacher should consider possible causes and then think of appropriate ways of dealing with the error.
06/02/09 BERTHA SAMANO O 25. CONCLUSION
- TheSUCCESS(orFAILURE ) of a speaking lesson depends primarily on the teacher.
- ACTIVITY : Plan it in advance.
- LANGUAGE : Supply key language.
- TOPICS : Vary them, make them mean