Lesson 6 - Primary Research Methods 2

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  • 1. Lesson 6 RESEARCH METHODS 3


  • Students will
    • list sampling types
    • select representative samples
    • reduce sample errors
    • plan the survey
    • ask the questions

L e arning Out c om e s 3. The worlds most famous newspaper error President Harry Truman against Thomas Dewey Chicago Tribute prepared an incorrect headline without first getting accurate information Reason? bias inaccurate opinion polls Sampling 4. Most research cannot test everyone. Instead asampleof the whole population is selected and tested. If this is done well, the results can be applied to the wholepopulation . This selection and testing of a sample is calledsampling .If asampleis poorly chosen, all the data may be useless.Sampling Population the group of people we wish to understand. Populations are often segmented by demographic or psychographic features (age, gender, interests, lifestyles). Sample a subset of the population that represents the whole group Respondents people who answer 5. Two Methods Sampling This relies onavailablepeople. For example, people passing in the street or walking through a mall.This is not objective or representative. Thus, it is oftennot scientific or reliable . Non-probability or Convenience Sampling This is a sample selectedrandomlyand according to scientific guidelines. To create asimple random sample , you need (1) a list of the members of the population (2) a way to create random numbers.Probability or Random Sampling 6. Sampling Lists and Random Numbers 7. 8. The Margin of Erroris the measure of accuracy of a survey. The smaller the margin of error, the more accurate the survey. Sampling Margin of Error What is your primary daily media channel? How accurate is this statistic? What is the margin of error? 9. Margin of Error = 1/ n x 100 n = number of respondents 48,804 people in TNS sample 48,804 = 220.916 1/221 = 0.0045 x 100 = 0.45% = 60.55% to 61.45%Sampling Margin of Error What is your primary daily media channel? How accurate is this statistic? What is the margin of error? 10. 41 respondents Margin of Error= 1/ n x 100 n = number of respondents 41respondents 41 = 6.403124237432848686488 1/6.4 = 0.15625 x 100 = 15.6% margin of error 25 = 5 1/5 = 0.2 X 100 = 20% margin of error How accurate is this statistic? What is the margin of error? 21.4% to52.6%consider themselves unfriendly to the environment Margin of Error= 1/ n x 100 n = number of respondents What would the margin of error be for 25 respondents? 11. Planning a survey

  • Ask yourself the following 3 questions:
  • WHOwill be the respondents?
  • WHATinformation do you want to
  • learn from them?
  • HOWcan you effectively get that
  • information?

Start-up questions 12. Planning a survey WHOwill be the respondents? Select respondents relevant to your focus Eg:Askcomputer hardwarerelated qs to hardware engineers / IT professionals Asktoyrelated questions to children and mothers Start-upquestions 13. Planning a survey

  • WHATinformation do you want to
  • learn from them?
  • Think clearly of your focus
  • Think clearly of what the results mightlook like
  • Be specific

Start-upquestions 14. Planning a survey Be specific Example: This research is done to ascertain the: -Awarenessof /knowledgeof -Attitudetowards /perceptionof -Demandfor etc Start-upquestions 15. Planning a survey

  • HOWcan you effectively get that
  • information?
  • Choose effective questions
  • Decide on type of survey(mail, interview, telephone, online)
  • Decide on response categories
  • Design layout
  • Decide on target population
  • Decide on sample size
  • Select sample

Start-upquestions 16. Planning a survey

  • Online Surveys
  • Advantagesof online surveys:
  • Access to a large number of people,
  • Quick
  • Disadvantagesof online surveys:
  • You cannot control the conditions
  • - someone else may answer
  • - not physically there to clarify or probe further

Start-upquestions 17. The Questions

  • Asking questions
  • Avoid jargon, slang, abbreviations
  • Avoid ambiguity, confusion and vagueness
  • Avoid writing double-barreled questions
  • Avoid leading
  • Avoid treating a respondents beliefabout a hypothesis as a test of the hypothesis

Start-upquestions 18. The Questions Asking questions 1. Avoid jargon, slang, abbreviations Example: How often do you use Polyethylene carriers? Ask instead: How often do you use plastic bags? Start-upquestions 19. The Questions Asking questions 2. Avoid ambiguity, confusion and vagueness Example: Do you eat out often? Ask instead: In a typical week, about how many meals doyou eat away from home, at a restaurant, cafeteria, or other eating establishment? Start-upquestions 20. The Questions Asking questions 3. Avoid Double-barreled questions Example: Do you support or oppose the use of leadin lipsticks and paint? Ask instead: Do you support the use of lead in lipsticks? Do you support the use of lead in paint? Start-upquestions 21. The Questions Asking questions 4. Avoid Leading Example: Do you help the environment by usingcanvas shopping bags? Ask instead: Do you use canvas shopping bags? Start-upquestions 22. The Questions Asking questions 5. Beliefs as real Example: Do you think more educated people wearfur clothing? Ask instead: What is your education level? Do you wear fur clothing? Start-upquestions 23. The Questions

  • Organising questions
  • Question types:
  • Closed
  • Likert scales
  • Semantic scales
  • Ranking scales
  • Structured questions(age, income, education level, etc)
  • Open
  • Opinion
  • Overall / final comments

Start-upquestions 24. The Introduction [Fashion and the Environment] We are a team of[Fashion Marketing]students from Raffles College of Higher Education.We are conducting this survey as part of our research project for our Academic Research and Communication Skills module under our lecturer and research supervisor Kavita Parwani.The questionnaire should take about 5 minutes to complete.Our research project examines[the attitudes of the students of Raffles College of Higher Education towards the reuse, reduction and recycling of clothing.]We hope that your response will help us understand our subject in greater depth.The information we gather is confidential and anonymous, in other words, we will not name you or identify you in connection with the information you provide.If you have any questions about the survey or our research project, please feel free to contact me,[Josephine Lim, at josephinelim@gmail.com]or our supervisor Kavita Parwani at kavitaparwani@raffles-college.edu.sg 25. REFERENCES Babbie, E. (2008).The Basics of Social Research (4 thed .) USA: Cengage. Dewey Defeats Truman (2009) Deweydefeatstruman.http:// www.deweydefeatstruman.com / Ghauri, P. & Gronhaug, K. (2005). Research Methods in Business Studies A Practical Guide, Essex: Pearson Neuman, WL. (2009).Understanding Research . London: Pearson.Visocky OGrady, K. & Visocky OGrady, J. (2009).A Designers Research Manual , USA: Rockport. 26. ExerciseQuestion: Japan and its recent tsunami victims do not need the worlds interest, sympathy and financial assistance as Japan is a wealthy nation that can take care of itself. In groups: Part 1: Conduct secondary research (Lesson 3) Part 2: Conduct primary research (Lesson 4-5) Part 3: Evaluate the research (Lesson 6) Part 4: Submit a short report on your findings (Lesson 7) 27. Group Exercise:

  • Select your topic (Japan / Random)
  • Select your focus
  • Write 7-10 research questions
  • Mix of Demographic and Psychograpic areas
  • Select 10 respondents
  • Do the survey
  • Tabulate and analyse the results
  • Optional: Calculate margin of error
  • Findings? Write out your findings, and the analysis of these findings.


  • Project Step 3:
  • Presentation 3:Research Methods
  • Prepare a 5-6 minute presentation explaining yourprimary research methods .
  • Explain how you will collectinformation/dataon the topic. Explain whether you decided to doquantitativeorqualitativeresearch and why.
  • Whichmethod(s)will you use? Why?
  • Who will yousample ? How? Why?
  • Whatquestionswill you ask? Giveexamples .
  • Whatproblemsdo you foresee?
  • Detail yoursources .
  • Design PowerPointslides .

homework 29. Quantitative data used to measuresubjectiveinformation. Psychographic research attempts toquantify the qualitative . Collected via aquestionnairein a survey or structured interview. Common psychographicvariablesare: opinions, religious beliefs, music tastes, personality traits and lifestyle choices. Data Collection Psychographic Question TypesLikertScales 30. Quantitative data used to measuresubjectiveinformation.