- 1. Latin America in the 19th Century Part 3 of the MidtermArash Saysan
2. e Latin American Independence MovementsP1 www.emsc.nysed.gov/.../u5tp_42_textbox.jpg 3. e Latin American Independence Movements P2 September 15th Mexican Independence Day (El Grito), Cry for Independency Right of man, Independency French Revolution, Raising of Independency Idea and having democratic nation. Simon Bolivar achieved the power had a thought of Democracy and equality Invented Spain by Bonaparte Idea of the Unity of Spanish America not just the Independency By Bolivar, not IndianNor European. 3 Years of War and Fighting Argentine Army against British 1806 and 1807 Commander of genius Jose de san martin in Argentina army 4. Latin America at Mid-Century P1 Many political changes to Latin America a er Independency. Santander at the head of the government of Gran Colombia, O'Higgins in Chile, the Andrada brothers in Brazil, and the men who founded the Mexican republic at the departure of Iturbide shared many of the same ambitions. Many Improvement almost everywhere. Approach to religious, social and economic balance. Not good economy , Considerable amount of resources at their consume. Balance was reached between imports and exports. Latin Americans scaled down their expectations in a mood of greater realism. Changing the mood of Latin America. increase of value and quantity of Latin American exports. 5. Latin America at Mid-Century P2 Substantial expansion of trade from 1840 to 1870. Latin America's economy grow. Provide competitively Because of low production costs. Economic growth because of increasing speed of trades with steam navigation and new export industries, for example on live ca le exports.e expansion of export trade necessarily had an impact on other activities within Latin America. Like business for brokers, insurers, shippers, other commercial middlemen and railway construction. 6. e in uence of Britain on Latin American during this period P1 George Canning, the British Foreign Secretary. Latin America economic development and their political security. George Canning negotiations with Mexico, Gran Colombia and BuenosAires for commercial treaties. Solid basis for Britain's trade with the new nations. Canning's success in advancing Britain's economic interests during theperiod of Latin American independence. Breaking the domination of the Spanish and Portuguese empires andpromoting Britain's in uence against its commercial rivals, particularly theFrench. 7. e in uence of Britain on Latin American during this period P2 Britain's economic interests at its highest in 1870s and the early 1890s. Large investments in government loans, railways, public utilities,commercial banks, meat- packing plants, and land in Argentina. British big investments in Mexico, Peru, Chile and Uruguay. By the middle of the twentieth century Britain's in uence reduced. First and Second world wars big factors in limitation of British in uence. World wars transformed Britain from a substantial internationalcreditor into a debtor, making it impossible for the City of London toregain its prewar eminence in the supply of overseas nance. 8. Latin American Wars of the 19th Century P1 Many Causes for wars in Latin America. the race war, the ideology of independence, thecontroversy of separation versus union, boundarydisputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism,resource wars, intraclass struggles, interventionscaused by capitalism, and religious wars Race war between the privileged white plantersand the less privileged a ranchis. Political, Economic, and Social Frustrations. e American Revolution (1775-1783), whichhad had the support of Spain, and the FrenchRevolution (1789-1799) provided models. esein uenced some of the privileged of the NewWorld, the two most important being SimonBolivar of New Granada and Miguel 9. Latin American Wars of the 19th CenturyP2 Professed political ideologies, Idea of federation. War of the Paci c (1879-83) between Chile against Peruand Bolivia, was the arbitrary taxation and dutiesimposed by Bolivia upon Chilean-owned nitrate rms. Who favored a monarchy, and liberals, who wanted arepublic, led to wars. e most bloody were the French intervention inMexico (1861-67) in support of the MexicanConservatives and the Brazilian Civil War of 1893-94. e wars had brought trade to a standstill almosteverywhere. Although many Latin American nationswon their independence by 1824, few were politicallycohesive. For decades regionalism and factionalismdominated. 10. Mexico during this period P1 e Spanish monarchy in 1804, against Catholic Church, made many colonists and priests, and induced manyclergy to begin to support the idea of independence. By the beginning of the 19th century, criollo resentment against the peninsulares and the government of NewSpain had seriously weakened the link between the colony and the parent country. e immediate crisis that moved Mexico to take the nal steps toward independence came as a result of theNapoleonic invasion of Spain. In 1808 French troops of Napoleon I ooded into Spain, and the Spanish royalfamily was lured to France, where it passed the Spanish crown into Napoleons hands. He then gave it to hisbrother. e people of Madrid began a revolt that spread throughout Spain. 11. Mexico during this period P2 Ideas of the Enlightenment, launched a revolt that aimed to freeMexico from the oppression of the Spanish colonial governmentby father Miguel Hidalgo Costilla in 1810. Immediate abolition of slavery and an end to taxes imposedupon Native Americans in 1810 Hidalgo recruited an army of at about 80,000 troops andenjoyed some initial military success. Jos Mara Morelos y Pavn. Like Hidalgo, he called for racialand social equality in Mexico Morelos was a be er military leader. Under Morelos, the rebelforces captured considerable territory, including the city ofAcapulco, and declared Mexican independence at the Congressof Chilpancingo in 1813. e Spanish revolution of 1820 altered the rebellion inMexico.