• Only 12% of population• Moved to “understand, control, predict and
explain” realities. • Loves intelligence and must be competent.
(Even play is about improvement!)• Most self-critical of all types; fears failure. • Weighs “credentials” of critics; tests authority. • Believes others should work to same high
NF• Only 12% of population. • Seeks self-actualization, integrity and unique
identity – to become “what I am meant to be.” • Works to find meaning and “make a difference.” • Wants to work with words, transmit ideas.• Devotes enormous energy to relationships. • Has trouble limiting work; over-commits. • Often carries unique influence in groups.
SJ• About 38% of population.
• Acts as protector and caretaker of others.
• Must earn places of status and belonging.
• Intensely loyal and responsible.
• Believes in hierarchy, established norms.
• Plans and conserves for future (SJ created Boy Scouts, “Murphy’s Law.”)
SP• About 38% of population. • Hungers for action. (SP’s don’t plan and
practice; they do!)• Thrives on “testing the limits.” • Loves situations with unknown outcomes.• Enjoys randomness, varied experience; often
leaps before looking. • Not product oriented. (To SP, work is play!) • Often colorful, electric, envied, admired.
• ENTJ Takes charge quickly Expects compliance Imposes order and high expectations Employs long-term strategies and
supportive logistics. Abandons what interferes with mission Blocks out other areas of life for work
NT’s • INTJ
Most self-confident (sense of “self power”) Nearly always high-achievingThought process is empirical logic Authority per se does not impress Always focused on future and long-term goals Wants to see systems translated into results Often single-minded in pursuit of goals
Hallmark is rational ingenuity Improvises in a crisis; may substitute ingenuity for deep knowledge Loves complexity; dislikes routine Embraces new thinking Fascinating conversationalist, debater Exults in competence: “I can do it!”
Only 1% of population – drawn to work as
mathematician, scientist, philosopher An architect of ideas and systems Impatient with implementation Precise in thinking, language, analysis Not socially driven, may seem difficult to
Four NF’s• ENFJ
Only 5% of population Goal or vision-oriented; plans ahead Leads with personal style; excels in sustained interactions Fluent with language, especially speech Adept at reading others Often struggles to disengage or set boundaries
Only 1% of population A private visionary with creative inner life Drawn to counseling, psychology, individual therapy Shows great personal warmth, depth of concentration, sensitivity to others Dislikes superficial interactions, conflict Works well in organizational structures
Contagiously enthusiastic, inspiring A high impact personality Shows exceptional insight into others Needs interaction and feedback Dislikes routine and painstaking detail Can solve most “people problems” Keeps a wide network of contacts
Only 1% of population Presents calm, quiet exterior Focuses deeply on personal values Values and “honor” trump logic Sacrifices for cherished persons, causes Fiercely protects value system Drawn to scholarly activities, service, mission work – away from business.
Four SJ’s • ESTJ
– 13% of population– Wants things done and done well!– Often rises to position of responsibility– Realistic, clear, direct, dependable, organized – Pillar of the community– Honors tradition; may resist change– May jump to conclusions without listening to opposing views
A “pillar of strength” in practical affairs Seeks justice and “right behavior” Quiet, conservative, reliable, stable Extraordinarily persevering, dependable Drawn to work as auditor, securities
investor Outstanding with difficult, detailed figures May be impatient with individual people
Most sociable of all types Supports and appreciates tradition Brilliantly “personalizes” interactions Loyal; duty and service-oriented Fueled by appreciation Focuses on people, things, practical
needs; not abstract or philosophical matters
– Primarily desires to serve– Super dependable!– Carries a strong sense of history and connection to the past – Relates well to those in need – students, the “boss” – loses interest if not needed– When in charge, may “do it myself” rather than insist that others do their jobs
Four SP’s• ESTP
Loves action! Makes things happen! Outstanding as entrepreneur, diplomat, peerless negotiator, salesperson, corporate turnaround leader Lives with a theatrical flourish! Uncanny observer of people, motivations, non-verbal cues Appears to have nerves of steel!
– Sees well-executed action as “the whole point”!– A master of tools, from scalpels to SST’s– Pits oneself, or one’s skill, “against all odds”– Views authority as useless or irrelevant– Converses little, or tersely– Hit men, gunslingers of the past, climbers,
racers, surgeons, stunt men and artists (like Michelangelo and Leonardo) are likely ISTP’s.
Always has accurate real world data gained through effortless, pinpoint observations
Excellent at working with people in crisis Most generous of all types Avoids being alone; always seeks company Language flows easily Loves excitement; always creates it Low tolerance for anxiety (“Just do it!”)
Called to fine arts and athletics Expresses self through artistic action—or not at all Doesn’t plan and prepare. Every act is full performance. Unique intelligence: must choose action in which every next move is a free variable Harpo Marx, Beethoven, Rembrandt, Nijinski and many great athletes are ISFP’s.
A final KTS activity
• Write your four-letter “type” on your name tag.
• Create discussion group with others whose results are similar to yours.
• Assess agreement / disagreement with insights regarding your “type.”
• As a group, consider how you might use this inventory as a tool for personal or professional growth.
Keirsey, D., and Bates, M. (1984). Please understand me: Character and temperament types (fifth ed.). Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis.