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Jakub Skorupski, WPUT, Poland, eng

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Вторая Международная научно-практическая конференция "Органическое сельское хозяйство: опыт развития за рубежом и внедрение в Беларуси" 30 ноября 2013 г.

Text of Jakub Skorupski, WPUT, Poland, eng

  • 1. Intensive and organic methods of livestock farming: influence of livestock farms on water ecosystems with example of Baltic Sea and solutions for the issue Jakub SkorupskiWest Pomeranian University of Technology The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus

2. Definitions Industrial animal production intensive rearing of livestock in specialized installations, which productively, organizationally and legally are closer to manufacturing facilities (enterprises, factories) than to farms. IED (former IPPC) farms instalations for the intensive rearing of pigs and poultry with more than 2.000 pigs over 30 kg or 750 sows, or 40.000 places for poultry, that require integrated permits, in accordance with the EU Directive on industrial emissions (former Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive). Cattle, sheep, goats, horses and fur animals large-scale breeding installations with equivalent number of livestock should also be consider. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 3. DefinitionsThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 4. Statistical Data about 67,3 millions of pigs in the Baltic Sea catchment area, population of poultry amounts to about 189,8 millions, app. 35,6 millions of cows in the Baltic Sea catchment area, total livestock density in the EU countries of the BSR is equal to 40,4 millions of LU, more than 1.320 IED farms in the Baltic catchment area, number of farms with more than 100 LU in the EU countries of the BSR amounts up to 74.400. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 5. Statistical Data 2.2%Bydo Cattle11.0%Owce Sheep 46.2%Kozy GoatsTrzoda chlewna Pigs drb Poultry konie Horses 39.5% 0.1%1.0%The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundPercentage of particular species in total livestock of the BSRMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 6. Statistical Data 1,152.1 1,784.82,052.8747.2 4,582.21.9 Czech Rep. Denmark11,117.9Germany Estonia Latvia6.94.22.31.010.30.4 0.3 0.4Lithuania Poland Slovakia Finland1,030.9 487.917,985.2Sweden313.246.7Total number of livestock (in thous. of LU; on the left) and industrial animal farms (>100 LU, in thous.; on the right) in the EU countries of the BSR The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 7. Accumulated Environmental ImpactThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 8. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS water pollution nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, eutrophication overfertilization of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), microbiological pollution Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 9. Water Pollution NP13 Agriculture242 Forestry10Precipitation 4Industry 8 59Domestic wastewater Fish farms8551421Percentage contribution of particular anthropogenic sources in the overall nutrient load flowing into the sea (Granstedt, 2006) The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 10. Water Pollution NP Poland5%5%Germany10%8%27% Denmark5%4%35%Sweden Finland 3%14% 8%Russia Estonia2%20% Latvia11%17%5%Lithuania10%11%Percentage contribution of the BSR countries in the overall nutrient load flowing into the sea (HELCOM, 2006) The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 11. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS water pollution nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, eutrophication overfertilization of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), microbiological pollution Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 12. EutrophicationThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 13. Manure production and eutrophication IPPC farm with 2500 productive pigs=125,0 AU1 AU of productive (slaughter) hog125,0 x 0,18 = 22,5 [kgN/day] 125,0 x 0,053 = 6,63 [kgP/day]if we assume, that productive pig gives approximately 3 times more excrement than humansIPPC farm with 2500 is equivalent to productive pigsoverfertilisation = = eutrophication (f.i. input of 1 kg of nitrogen into water reservoirs causes creation of about 16 kg of biomass!)town with 7500 inhabitants, with out sewage treatment plant!The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund=0,18 kgN/day and 0,053 kgP/dayMinsk, 13.11.20138,21 MgN/year and 2,42 MgP/year Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 14. EutrophicationChlorophyll a concentration in waters of the European seas, July 2007 (JRC, emis.jrc.ec. europa.eu)The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in 15. EutrophicationThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in 16. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS water pollution nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, eutrophication overfertilization of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), microbiological pollution Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 17. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS water pollution nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, eutrophication overfertilization of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), microbiological pollution Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 18. GHG emissionThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in 19. Acid Rains Ammonia emission in Europe (kg N/ha/year) 20. Ozone Layer DestructionThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 21. Farm Animals EscapesThe project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development FundMinsk, 13.11.2013Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus 22. B) SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS air pollution ammoniac, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl compounds, amines, mercaptans, dinitrogen monoxide causes offensive odours, danger for human health, loss of recreation places, high costs of drinking water purification, degra

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