A Report on ISRO’s technological advancements Prepared by • K.GAUTHAM REDDY - 2011A8PS364G A Report prepared in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course EEE F472: SATELLITE COMMUNICATION INSTRUCTOR: M.K.Deshmukh Birla Institute of Technology and Science – Pilani 30/1/2014
A Report prepared in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course
EEE F472: SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
Birla Institute of Technology and Science – Pilani 30/1/2014
In 1960's, a common man like us thought of something brilliant across the wavelets of that time that involved the culture of space in it. In the midst of the initial take off into the WORLD OF SPACE, it was DR.VIKRAM SARABHAI(the visionary leader), who encouraged the masses to think of a visionary future for themselves, and for INDIA's FUTURE GENERATION and envisioned that this powerful technology could play a meaningful role in national development and solving the problems of common man. Vikram sarabai was the founder of the first Indian space center named as Vikram sarabai Space Center which is now known as Indian Space Research Organization(ISRO). He is considered as the father of Indian Space Programme.
Fig.1 Fig.2 Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Dr. K.Radhakrishan (First chairman of ISRO) (Present chairman of ISRO) The space activities in INDIA started in the 1960's when the first advancements took place at THUMBA. Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching station (TERLS) was the first space station at Trivandrum which gave a true and energetic insight into INDIA's capability of a stronghold nation in Space development. Thumba was primarily chosen because of the geographical conditions that favored that area. It has the magnetic equator overhead which completely necessitated the visionaries to implement their ideas and dreams in this region.
Geographic location of Thumba The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is the primary space agency of India. ISRO is amongst the largest government space agencies in the world. Its primary objective is to advance space technology and use its applications for national benefit. Established in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR). Headquartered in Bangalore, ISRO is under the administrative control of the Department of Space, Government of India. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), over the years, established a comprehensive network of ground stations to provide Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TTC) support to Satellite and Launch vehicle missions. These facilities are grouped under ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) with its headquarters at Bangalore, Karnataka State, INDIA. ISTRAC has TTC ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, SHAR (Sriharikota), Thiruvananthapuram, Port Blair Island, Brunei, Biak (Indonesia) and Mauritius, meeting international standards. ISRO is under the administrative control of the Department of Space, Government of India.
Thus, Indian Space program concentrated on achieving self-reliance and developing capability to build and launch communication satellites for television broadcast, telecommunications and meteorological applications; remote sensing satellites for management of natural resources. Objectives of ISRO:
1. ISRO is amongst the six largest government space agencies in the world, along with USA's NASA, Russia's RKA, Europe's ESA, China's CNSA and Japan's JAXA. Its primary objective is to advance space technology and use its applications for national benefit. Accordingly, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully operationalized two major satellite systems namely Indian National Satellites (INSAT) for communication services and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management of natural resources; also, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching IRS type of satellites and Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching INSAT type of satellites.
2. The main motto of Indian space research organization is Space technology in the service of human kind.
3. India's economic progress has made its space program more visible and active as
the country aims for greater self-reliance in space technology.
4. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is aimed at high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared (NIR), low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions. Specifically the objectives are
To prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m) of both near and far side of the moon.
To conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.
To realize the mission goal of harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle with suitable ground support systems including Deep Space Network (DSN) station.
To realize the integration and testing, launching and achieving lunar polar orbit of about 100 km, in-orbit operation of experiments, communication/ telecomm and, telemetry data reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilization by scientists.
5) One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission and the major objectives were
Design and realization of a Mars orbiter with a capability to survive and perform Earth bound maneuvers, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase around Mars.
Deep space communication, navigation, mission planning and management.
Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.
Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian
atmosphere by indigenous scientific instruments.
Different hierarchies in ISRO:
Technological Development during past :
From building the first experimental satellite Aryabhatta in 1975 to the world class operational Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series on the one hand and the third generation communication satellite INSAT-3 on the other, is indeed an impressive track record by any standards for the 30-year-old Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Indian space Programme encompasses research in areas like astronomy, astrophysics, planetary and earth sciences, atmospheric sciences and theoretical physics. Balloons, sounding rockets, space platforms and ground-based facilities support these research efforts. A series of sounding rockets are available for atmospheric experiments. Several scientific instruments have been flown on satellites especially to direct celestial X-ray and gamma-ray bursts Since its establishment, ISRO has achieved numerous milestones. It built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union in 1975. It was built by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to gain experience in building and operating a satellite in space. A power failure halted experiments after four days in orbit with all signals from the spacecraft lost after five days of operation. The satellite reentered the Earth's atmosphere on 11 February 1992.In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellite. In 2008, Chandrayaan-1, India sent its first mission to the Moon.
India’s First Mission to Moon
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), informally called Mangalyaan, is a Mars orbiter launched into Earth orbit on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) which is currently on-route to Mars.
India’s First Mission to Mars Over the years, ISRO has conducted a variety of operations for both Indian and foreign clients. ISRO's satellite launch capability is mostly provided by indigenous launch vehicles and launch sites. Launch Vehicles are used to transport and put satellites or space crafts into space. In India, the launch vehicles development Programme began in the early 1970s. The first experimental Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) was developed in 1980. An Augmented version of this, ASLV, was launched successfully in 1992. India has made tremendous strides in launch vehicle technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle Programme with the operationalization of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). PSLV represents ISRO's first attempt to design and develop an operational vehicle that can be used to orbit application satellites. While SLV-3 secured for India a place in the community of space-faring nations, the ASLV provided the rites of passage into launch vehicle technology for ISRO. And with PSLV, a new world-class vehicle has arrived. PSLV has repeatedly proved its reliability and versatility by launching 64 satellites / space crafts into a variety of orbits so far.
Achievements of ISRO in space: India’s progress in space has been very systematic starting with experimental satellites like Aryabhatta, Bhaskara, Apple and Rohini. It performed satellite application experiments like SITE, STEP and Apple application programme. The operational space services consist of INSAT system and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS). The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) made a modest beginning in launch vehicles like SLV-3, and ASLV. The first development flight of the indigenous Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) was carried out in 1992 which could put 1,000 kg class remote sensing satellite into 900 km polar sun-synchronous orbit. India has acquired eminence in world class space science. It has mastered modern space technology and its various applications for the benefit of society. New space technology is being utilized for telecommunications, television broadcasts, weather watch and for providing information relating to agriculture, forests, water resources and minerals to mention a few. The launch of the GSLV marks the beginning of a significant phase in launch vehicle technology development for the Indian Space Research Organisation, which already has an impressive record in the field of sophisticated satellite technology In the past three decades ISRO has built an infrastructure sector of space programme – construction and operation of satellites and their launch vehicles, ground station and sensors. ISRO has also collaborated with other Indian institutions and over 250 private industries. Both private and public sectors manufacture a vanity of equipment and materials – light alloy structure for inter-stages, motor cases, liquid thrusters, propellant tanks, gas generation and electronic packages. The second launch facility at Sriharikota at a cost of Rs.280 crore is under construction.
ISRO’s achievements And also India became the first country to send 10 satellites on a single rocket(PSLV) in 2008.The figure below shows some of ISRO’s successes and failures
A REVIEW OF INDIA’S SPACE PROGRAM
Future plans, missions for new technology development: Future plans include indigenous development of GSLV, manned space missions, further lunar exploration, mars exploration and interplanetary probes. ISRO has several field installations as assets, and cooperates with the international community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreements. ISRO is also planning to launch a series of remote sensing satellites with a variety of applications including one solely dedicated to the field of astronomy. Indian space scientists foresee several developments in the new millennium when they can scale new heights. Revolutionary developments in the fields of communication, information and micro- electronics are driving greater convergence and forging new directions for aerospace programs. "Space would be a strong tool for development in future" says Dr Kasturirangan. He is of the view that from development of civil applications such as personal mobile communications at a global level and management of natural disasters to futuristic vistas such as space power generation and space tourism the new possibilities are unlimited.
Fig.11 ISRO’s new endeavor
Future Launch Vehicles: i) The GSLV Mk III is conceived and designed to make ISRO fully self reliant in launching heavier communication satellites of INSAT-4 class, which weigh 4500 to 5000 kg. The vehicle envisages multi-mission launch capability for GTO, LEO, Polar and intermediate circular orbits. ii) Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD): As a first step towards realizing a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) fully re-usable launch vehicle, a series of technology demonstration missions have been conceived. For this purpose a Winged Reusable Launch Vehicle technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) has been configured. The RLV-TD will act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies viz., hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air breathing propulsion. First in the series of demonstration trials is the hypersonic flight experiment (HEX).
Pre Project activities of Human Space Flight Mission Programme The objective of Human Spaceflight Programme is to undertake a human spaceflight mission to carry a crew of two to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and return them safely to a predefined destination on earth. The programme is proposed to be implemented in defined phases. Currently, the pre project activities are progressing with a focus on the development of critical technologies for subsystems such as Crew Module (CM), Environmental control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Crew Escape System, etc.
Indian Human Space Flight Programme Future Space missions: i) Chandrayaan-2 is an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission to Moon. ISRO’s capability to soft-land on the lunar surface will be demonstrated with this mission. Chandrayaan-2 is configured as a two module system comprising of an Orbiter Craft module (OC) and a Lander Craft module (LC) carrying the Rover developed by ISRO. Both the modules are interfaced mechanically by an inter module adapter. ii) Aditya-1 is a scientific mission designed to study solar corona. The major scientific objectives of the proposed space solar coronagraph are to achieve a fundamental understanding of the physical processes that (a) Heat the solar corona (b) Accelerate the Solar Wind, and (c) Produce Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The options are never ending. There's RADAR imaging, telecommunication related activities and other hitherto of this revolutionary field that ISRO is looking forward to. India’s experience has clearly shown that the investment in space always pays through remote sensing and telecommunications. By being fully self-reliant in space activities, it is certain that the resulting contribution from the space programme to the Indian GDP will be markedly significant.