Corrected endure dr4.7 validated

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  • 1.ENDURE Deliverable DR4.7 Page 1 of 234 ENDURE European Network for Durable Exploitation of crop protection strategies Project number: 031499 Network of Excellence Sixth Framework Programme Thematic Priority 5 FOOD and Quality and Safety Deliverable DR4.7 Review of factors influencing the success or failure of biocontrol and recommended orientation for new R&D projects Due date of deliverable: M33 Actual submission date: M36 Start date of the project: January 1st , 2007 Duration: 48 months Organisation name of lead contractor: IBMA + CNR Revision: V2 Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006) Dissemination Level PU Public PU PP Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services) RE Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services) CO Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services)

2. ENDURE Deliverable DR4.7 Page 2 of 234 Table of contents Table of contents.......................................................................................................... 2 List of tables ................................................................................................................. 5 List of Figures............................................................................................................... 7 Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 8 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 9 Definitions................................................................................................................... 10 1. Foreword............................................................................................................... 11 2. Introduction ........................................................................................................... 11 3. Conservation biological control (CBC): current status of research relevant to the major cropping systems in Europe and recommendations for multi- site experiments .................................................................................................... 12 3.1. Definitions related to Conservation Biological Control...............................................12 3.2. Scope and aims of this chapter .................................................................................12 3.3. Limits of this report ....................................................................................................13 3.4. Reviewing methods ...................................................................................................13 3.5. Results: Management of invertebrate pests ..............................................................16 3.5.1. Summary of the source literature for the meta review ............................................... 16 3.5.2. Detailed analysis of CBC research reported by review papers ................................. 16 3.5.3. Knowledge gaps that represent barriers to the implementation of CBC.................... 28 3.5.4. Other challenges to the implementation of CBC discussed in the literature.............. 32 3.6. Results: Management of plant pathogens .................................................................33 3.6.1. Biological control of air-borne pathogens................................................................... 33 3.6.2. Biological control of soil-borne pathogens ................................................................. 34 3.6.3. Conclusions................................................................................................................ 36 3.7. Results: Management of weeds ................................................................................36 3.8. References cited in Chapter 3 ...................................................................................38 4. Classical and augmentative biocontrol: critical status analysis for selected crops ..................................................................................................................... 41 4.1. Potential of biocontrol based on published research.................................................41 4.1.1. Review of the scientific literature on biocontrol against the main plant pathogens of selected crops ...................................................................................... 41 4.1.2. Review of the scientific literature on beneficials for classical and augmentative/inundative biocontrol against insect pests........................................... 52 4.1.3. Research and Development in classical biological control with emphasis on the recent introduction of insect parasitoids............................................................... 59 4.2. Currently registered biocontrol products in the EU....................................................75 4.2.1. Collection of information............................................................................................. 75 4.2.2. Substances suitable for biological control and registered on Annex 1 of the EU Pesticides Database ............................................................................................ 76 4.2.3. Uses of biocontrol products in five European countries............................................. 80 4.3. Regulatory aspects....................................................................................................82 4.3.1. Objectives................................................................................................................... 82 4.3.2. Working method ......................................................................................................... 82 4.3.3. Results ....................................................................................................................... 83 4.3.4. Conclusion.................................................................................................................. 84 3. ENDURE Deliverable DR4.7 Page 3 of 234 4.4. Identified difficulties and conditions for success at field level....................................84 4.4.1. Technical aspects: factors of efficacy ........................................................................ 84 4.4.2. Economic aspects: cost analysis ............................................................................... 96 4.4.3. Socio-economic aspects: market analysis and outlook ........................................... 100 5. Conclusions and perspectives for future R&D projects ....................................... 107 5.1. Improving classical and augmentative biological control.........................................107 5.1.1. Key research issues................................................................................................. 107 5.1.2. Issues for development............................................................................................ 108 5.1.3. Industrial issues........................................................................................................ 109 5.2. Conservation Biological Control ..............................................................................109 6. Technical annexes .............................................................................................. 111 6.1. Appendix 1: Scoring of content of review papers, headings and term lists .......................... 112 6.2. Appendix 2: Bibliography of review papers analyzed for the meta-review on Conservation Biological Control............................................................................................ 113 6.3. Appendix 3. Synoptic list of natural enemy taxa mentioned in 221 reports of CBC research in review papers, arranged in taxonomic order...................................................... 117 6.4. Appendix 4. Relationship between pest taxon and the class of natural enemy addressed by the CBC research reported. ........................................................................... 118 6.5. Appendix 5. Reported influence of different CBC practice and techniques categories and sub-categories on abundance or fitness of natural enemies and on pest control............................................................................................................................ 119 6.6. Appendix 6. Representation of European countries and institutions in the authorship of the reviews that were the source literature for this meta-review..................... 123 6.7. Appendix 7. Representation of non-European countries and institutions in the authorship of the reviews that were the source literature for this meta-review..................... 124 6.8. Appendix 8. Categorization of research gaps identified by authors of review papers.......... 125 6.9. Appendix 9. Categorization of challenges to implementation of CBC identified by authors of review papers....................................................................................................... 127 6.10. Appendix 10. Inventory of biocontrol agents (M: microbials; B: botanicals; O: others) described in primary literature (1998-2008) for successful effect against Botrytis sp. in laboratory experiments and field trials with selected crops............................ 128 6.11. Appendix 11. Inventory of biocontrol agents (M: microbials; B: botanicals; O: others) described in primary literature (1998-2008) for successful effect against powdery mildew in laboratory experiments and field trials on various crops........................ 160 6.12. Appendix 12. Inventory of biocontrol agents (M: microbials; B: botanicals; O: others) described in primary literature (1973-2008) for successful effect against the rust pathogens in laboratory experiments and field trials on selected crops ...........