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2006-2007 AP Biology Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy 1

Chapter 9 (Cellular Respiration - Complete)

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  • Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical EnergyAP Biology 2006-2007 1
  • Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 1
  • AP Biology 2006-2007 2
  • Whats the point?AP Biology 2006-2007 2
  • Whats the point? The point is to make ATP! ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 2
  • Harvesting stored energyAP Biology 3
  • Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules u carbohydrates, fats, proteinsAP Biology 3
  • Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules u carbohydrates, fats, proteins Heterotrophs eat these organic molecules food u digest organic molecules to get raw materials for synthesis fuels for energy w controlled release of energy w burning fuels in a series of step-by-step enzyme-controlled reactionsAP Biology 3
  • Harvesting stored energyAP Biology 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPAP Biology 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPrespiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxideAP Biology 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPrespiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2AP Biology 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPrespiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heatAP Biology 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP O2 glucose fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps enzymes ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP enzymes ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  • Harvesting stored energy Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP enzymes ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat CO2 + H2O + ATP (+ heat) 4
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels?AP Biology 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATPAP Biology 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP + +AP Biology 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP + +AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- + +AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + +AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + e-AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + + e-AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized + + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + e- e- oxidation reductionAP Biology e- 5
  • How do we harvest energy from fuels? Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another as electrons move they carry energy with them that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + e- e- oxidation reductionAP Biology e- redox 5
  • How do we move electrons in biology?AP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells electrons move as part of H atom move H = move electronsAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electronsAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction HAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology H reduction 6
  • How do we move electrons in biology? Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e electrons move as part of H atom p move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology H e- reduction 6
  • Coupling oxidation & reduction oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 7
  • Coupling oxidation & reduction REDOX reactions in respiration u release energy as breakdown organic molecules break C-C bonds strip off electrons from C-H bonds by removing H atoms w C6H12O6 CO2 = the fuel has been oxidized electrons attracted to more electronegative atoms w in biology, the most electronegative atom? w O2 H2O = oxygen has been reduced u couple REDOX reactions & use the released energy to synthesize ATP oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 7
  • Coupling oxidation & reduction REDOX reactions in respiration u release energy as breakdown organic molecules break C-C bonds strip off electrons from C-H bonds by removing H atoms w C6H12O6 CO2 = the fuel has been oxidized electrons attracted to more electronegative atoms w in biology, the most electronegative atom? w O2 H2O = oxygen has been reduced O2 u couple REDOX reactions & use the released energy to synthesize ATP oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 7
  • Oxidation & reduction Reduction oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP reductionAP Biology 8
  • Oxidation & reduction Oxidation Reduction u adding O uremoving O u removing H uadding H u loss of electrons ugain of electrons u releases energy ustores energy u exergonic uendergonic oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP reductionAP Biology 8
  • Moving electrons in respirationNAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O O P Ophosphates O O adenine O P O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O O P Ophosphates O O adenine O P O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ How efficient! O Build once, O P O use many waysphosphates O O adenine O P O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O O P Ophosphates O O adenine O P O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O + H O P Ophosphates O O adenine O P O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ reduction O + H O P Ophosphates O O adenine O P O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O O H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  • Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) reducing power! u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  • like $$ in the bank Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) reducing power! u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  • like $$ in the bank Moving electrons in respiration Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ NADH (reduced) reducing power! u FAD+2 FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O + H O O P O oxidation O P Ophosphates O O O adenine O O P O O P O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  • Overview of cellular respirationAP Biology 10
  • Overview of cellular respiration 4 metabolic stages u Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis w respiration without O2 w in cytosol u Aerobic respiration w respiration using O2 w in mitochondria 2. Pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport chain C H O6 +AP Biology 6 12 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 10
  • Overview of cellular respiration 4 metabolic stages u Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis w respiration without O2 w in cytosol u Aerobic respiration w respiration using O2 w in mitochondria 2. Pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport chain C H O6 +AP Biology 6 12 6O2 ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 (+ heat) 10
  • AP Biology 2006-2007 11
  • Whats the point?AP Biology 2006-2007 11
  • Whats the point? The point is to make ATP! ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 11
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ H+AP Biology 12
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it conformational changes bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient through ATP synthase ADP + Pi ATP H+AP Biology 12
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it conformational changes bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP through ATP synthase ADP + Pi ATP H+AP Biology 12
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it conformational changes bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP + P through ATP synthase ADP + Pi ATP H+AP Biology 12
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it conformational changes bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP + P through ATP synthase ADP + Pi ATP ATP H+AP Biology 12
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it conformational changes bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP + P through ATP synthase ADP + Pi ATP ATP H+APBut Biology How is the proton (H+) gradient formed? 12
  • H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ ADP + P ATP H+AP Biology 2006-2007 13
  • H+ Got to wait until H+ H+ H+ H+ the sequel! H+ H+ H+ Got the Energy? Ask Questions! ADP + P ATP H+AP Biology 2006-2007 13
  • Cellular Respiration Stage 1: GlycolysisAP Biology 2006-2007 14
  • Cellular Respiration Stage 1: GlycolysisAP Biology 2006-2007 14
  • AP Biology 2006-2007 15
  • Whats the point?AP Biology 2006-2007 15
  • Whats the point? The point is to make ATP! ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 15
  • Glycolysis Breaking down glucose u glyco lysis (splitting sugar) u ancient pathway which harvests energy where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but its inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosolAP Biology 16
  • Glycolysis Breaking down glucose u glyco lysis (splitting sugar) glucose pyruvate 6C 2x 3C u ancient pathway which harvests energy where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but its inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosolAP Biology 16
  • Glycolysis Breaking down glucose u glyco lysis (splitting sugar) glucose pyruvate 6C 2x 3CAP Biology 16
  • Glycolysis Breaking down glucose u glyco lysis (splitting sugar) glucose pyruvate 6C 2x 3C u ancient pathway which harvests energy where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but its inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosolAP Biology 16
  • Glycolysis Breaking down glucose u glyco lysis (splitting sugar) glucose pyruvate 6C 2x 3C u ancient pathway which harvests energy where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but its inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosol Thats not enoughAP Biology ATP for me! 16
  • Glycolysis Breaking down glucose u glyco lysis (splitting sugar) In the cytosol? glucose pyruvate Why does that make 6C 2x 3C evolutionary sense? u ancient pathway which harvests energy where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but its inefficient generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosol Thats not enoughAP Biology ATP for me! 16
  • Evolutionary perspectiveAP Biology 17
  • Evolutionary perspective Prokaryotes u first cells had no organellesAP Biology 17
  • Evolutionary perspective Prokaryotes u first cells had no organelles Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2AP Biology 17
  • Evolutionary perspective Prokaryotes u first cells had no organelles Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2 Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life u ALL cells still utilize glycolysisAP Biology 17
  • Evolutionary perspective Enzymes Prokaryotes of glycolysis are u first cells had no organelles well-conserved Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2 Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life u ALL cells still utilize glycolysisAP Biology 17
  • Evolutionary perspective Enzymes Prokaryotes of glycolysis are u first cells had no organelles well-conserved Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2 Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life u ALL cells still utilize glycolysis You mean were related? Do I have to invite them over forAP Biology the holidays? 17
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-CAP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C10 reactionsu convert glucose (6C) to 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C10 reactionsu convert glucose (6C) to 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C10 reactionsu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactionsu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: DHAP 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-Cu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-Pu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme enzyme u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme enzyme u produces: enzyme DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme enzyme u produces: enzyme DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pienzyme 2 ATP 2 u net yield: enzyme 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH enzyme 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  • Glycolysis summaryAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENTAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonicAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATPAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATPAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATPAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATPAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3P C-C-C-PAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-PAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonicAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little ATP & a little NADHAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADHAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELDAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yieldAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yield 2 ATPAP Biology 19
  • Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yield 2 ATPAP Biology 2 NADH 19
  • 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) CH2OHGlucose priming Glucose 1 O ATP hexokinaseuget glucose ready to ADP CH2 O P O split Glucose 6-phosphate 2 phosphorylate phosphoglucose CH2 O P glucose isomerase O CH2OH molecular Fructose 6-phosphate 3 rearrangement ATP phosphofructokinase P O CH2 CH2 O Pusplit destabilized ADP O Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glucose 4,5 aldolase H P O CH2 isomerase C O C O Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -phosphate (G3P) CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P NAD+ Pi 6 Pi NAD+ NADH glyceraldehyde NADH 3-phosphate P O O dehydrogenase CHOHAP Biology 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG) CH2 O P 20
  • 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) CH2OHGlucose priming Glucose 1 O ATP hexokinaseuget glucose ready to ADP CH2 O P O split Glucose 6-phosphate 2 phosphorylate phosphoglucose CH2 O P glucose isomerase O CH2OH molecular Fructose 6-phosphate 3 rearrangement ATP phosphofructokinase P O CH2 CH2 O Pusplit destabilized ADP O Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glucose 4,5 aldolase H P O CH2 isomerase C O C O Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -phosphate (G3P) CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P NAD+ Pi 6 Pi NAD+ NADH glyceraldehyde NADH 3-phosphate P O O dehydrogenase CHOHAP Biology 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG) CH2 O P 20
  • 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) CH2OHGlucose priming Glucose 1 O ATP hexokinaseuget glucose ready to ADP CH2 O P O split Glucose 6-phosphate 2 phosphorylate phosphoglucose CH2 O P glucose isomerase O CH2OH molecular Fructose 6-phosphate 3 rearrangement ATP phosphofructokinase P O CH2 CH2 O Pusplit destabilized ADP O Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glucose 4,5 aldolase H P O CH2 isomerase C O C O Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -phosphate (G3P) CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P NAD+ Pi 6 Pi NAD+ NADH glyceraldehyde NADH 3-phosphate P O O dehydrogenase CHOHAP Biology 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG) CH2 O P 20
  • 2nd half of glycolysis (5 reactions) Energy Harvest NAD+ Pi Pi NAD+ 6 NADH NADH ADP 7 ADP phosphoglycerate O- kinase ATP C ATP 3-Phosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate CHOH (3PG) (3PG) CH2 O P 8 O-