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Architecture introduction-to-humanities

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  • 1. ARCHITECTUREARCHITECTURE Introduction toIntroduction to HumanitiesHumanities The Humanities Through The ArtsThe Humanities Through The Arts F. David Martin & Lee A. JacobusF. David Martin & Lee A. Jacobus

2. ARCHITECTUREARCHITECTURE Buildings are works of art that isBuildings are works of art that is architecture.architecture. Buildings possess artistic quality -- theyBuildings possess artistic quality -- they make our living space more livable.make our living space more livable. They draw us to them rather than pushThey draw us to them rather than push us away or make us ignore them.us away or make us ignore them. They make our living space more livable.They make our living space more livable. 3. Centered SpaceCentered Space Centered space is the positionedCentered space is the positioned interrelationships of things organized aroundinterrelationships of things organized around some paramount thing as the place to whichsome paramount thing as the place to which the other things seem to converge.the other things seem to converge. Space is the material of the architectSpace is the material of the architect Centered space has a pulling power that, evenCentered space has a pulling power that, even in our most harassed moments, we can hardlyin our most harassed moments, we can hardly help feeling.help feeling. 4. Space andSpace and ArchitectureArchitecture Architecture as opposed to mereArchitecture as opposed to mere engineering -- is the creativeengineering -- is the creative conservation of space.conservation of space. Architects perceive the centers of spaceArchitects perceive the centers of space in nature, and build to preserve thesein nature, and build to preserve these centers and make them more vital.centers and make them more vital. Architects are the shepherds of space.Architects are the shepherds of space. 5. ChartresChartres Chartres, like most Gothic churches, is shaped roughlyChartres, like most Gothic churches, is shaped roughly like a recumbent Latin cross: p149 or 156 Fig 6-2 & 6-like a recumbent Latin cross: p149 or 156 Fig 6-2 & 6- 33 The apse ( a projecting semicircular and vaulted part ofThe apse ( a projecting semicircular and vaulted part of a building) or eastern end of the building contains thea building) or eastern end of the building contains the high altar.high altar. The nave (the central part of a church runningThe nave (the central part of a church running lengthwise) is the central and largest aisle leading fromlengthwise) is the central and largest aisle leading from the central portal to the high alter.the central portal to the high alter. But before the altar is reached, the transept crossesBut before the altar is reached, the transept crosses the nave. Both the northern and southern facades ofthe nave. Both the northern and southern facades of the transept of chartres contain glorious rose windows.the transept of chartres contain glorious rose windows. 6. Living SpaceLiving Space Living space is the feeling of theLiving space is the feeling of the positioning of things in the environment,positioning of things in the environment, the liberty of movement, and the appealthe liberty of movement, and the appeal of paths as directives.of paths as directives. Space infiltrates through all our senses,Space infiltrates through all our senses, as our sensations of everything influenceas our sensations of everything influence our perception of space.our perception of space. 7. Living Space contdLiving Space contd Each of our senses helps record theEach of our senses helps record the positioning of things, expressed in suchpositioning of things, expressed in such terms as up-down, left-right, and near-terms as up-down, left-right, and near- far.far. These recordings require a referenceThese recordings require a reference system with a center.system with a center. With living space, since all the sensesWith living space, since all the senses are involved, the whole body is a center.are involved, the whole body is a center. 8. ContdContd when we relate to a place of special value,when we relate to a place of special value, such as the home,such as the home, , a configurational center is formed in a place, a configurational center is formed in a place that is a gathering point around which a field ofthat is a gathering point around which a field of interest is structured.interest is structured. To oversimplify we can say that for Romans, itTo oversimplify we can say that for Romans, it was the city of Rome to which they mostwas the city of Rome to which they most naturally belong, constituting theirnaturally belong, constituting their configurational center.configurational center. 9. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture The architects professional life is perhapsThe architects professional life is perhaps more difficult than that of any other artist.more difficult than that of any other artist. Architecture is a peculiarly public art becauseArchitecture is a peculiarly public art because buildings generally have a social function, andbuildings generally have a social function, and many buildings require public funds.many buildings require public funds. More than other artists, the architects mustMore than other artists, the architects must consider the public.consider the public. 10. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture contdcontd Thus architects must be psychologists,Thus architects must be psychologists, sociologists, economists, businesspeople,sociologists, economists, businesspeople, politicians, and courtiers.politicians, and courtiers. They must also be engineers, for they must beThey must also be engineers, for they must be able to construct structurally stable buildings.able to construct structurally stable buildings. Architects have to take into account four basicArchitects have to take into account four basic and closely interrelated necessities: technicaland closely interrelated necessities: technical requirements, use, spatial relationships, andrequirements, use, spatial relationships, and content.content. 11. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture contdcontd Of the four necessities, the technicalOf the four necessities, the technical requirements of a building are the mostrequirements of a building are the most obvious.obvious. Buildings must stand (and withstand).Buildings must stand (and withstand). Architects must know the material and theirArchitects must know the material and their potentialities, how to put the materials together,potentialities, how to put the materials together, and how the materials will work on a particularand how the materials will work on a particular site. So architects are engineers.site. So architects are engineers. But they are something more as well - artists.But they are something more as well - artists. 12. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture contd p.153 / p.162contd p.153 / p.162 Functional Requirements of ArchitectureFunctional Requirements of Architecture Architects must not only make their buildingsArchitects must not only make their buildings stand but also usually stand them in such astand but also usually stand them in such a way that they reveal their function or use.way that they reveal their function or use. Some believe that (form must follow function).Some believe that (form must follow function). If form follows function in the sense that theIf form follows function in the sense that the form stands for the function; of its building,form stands for the function; of its building, then conventional forms or structures are oftenthen conventional forms or structures are often sufficient. No one is likely to mistake Chartressufficient. No one is likely to mistake Chartres Cathedral for an office building.Cathedral for an office building. 13. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture contd p.158 / p.165contd p.158 / p.165 Spatial Requirements of ArchitectureSpatial Requirements of Architecture A building that is technically awry withA building that is technically awry with poor lighting or awkward passageways orpoor lighting or awkward passageways or cramped rooms will distract from anycramped rooms will distract from any artistic meaning,artistic meaning, and so usually will a form that fails toand so usually will a form that fails to reveal the function of its building, or areveal the function of its building, or a form that fails to fit into its spatial context.form that fails to fit into its spatial context. 14. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture contd p. 158-163 / p.contd p. 158-163 / p. 165-169165-169 Revelatory Requirements of ArchitectureRevelatory Requirements of Architecture The function or use of a building is anThe function or use of a building is an essential part of the subject matter of thatessential part of the subject matter of that building,building, what the architect interprets or giveswhat the architect interprets or gives insight into by means of his form.insight into by means of his form. 15. Four Necessities ofFour Necessities of ArchitectureArchitecture contdcontd Essential values of contemporary society are aEssential values of contemporary society are a part of all artists subject matter; part of whatpart of all artists subject matter; part of what they must interpret in their work, and this--they must interpret in their work, and this-- because of the public character ofbecause of the public character of architecture--is especially so with architects.architecture--is especially so with architects. The way architects (and artists generally) areThe way architects (and artists generally) are influenced by the values of their society hasinfluenced by the values of their society has been given many explanations.been given many explanations. 16.

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