Romania - Timisoara

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  1. 1. Romania is placed between Central and Southeastern Europe. The country fascinates by its history, the strange legends, mystical forests and rough mountain areas. With this series of ebooks, the reader should get closer impressions about the country. It is not a simple travel guide, but a picture book, which seeks to stimulate your own discoveries. THE IDEA 1
  2. 2. The Little Vienna and City of Roses and Parks. Today Timisoara is a cosmopolitan city with lots of charm and thriving culture. His sights are relatively new and were built after the liberation of the city from the Ottomans in 1716 and later, after the revolution in 1848. Emperor Josef II, Franz I of Austria and Franz Josef visited the town. In 1809 the Austrian treasury has been placed here to protect them from the French. Due to the loyalty of the city during the Revolution of 1848,-the Habsburg Emperor Franz Josef has traveled to Timisoara in 1853 to attend the inauguration of the victory monument in person. Timisoara is a modern multicultural city characterized by its Baroque and Art Nouveau buildings. The hallmark Timisoaras is his tolerance, his close cohesion and peaceful coexistence of different minorities, cultures and religions with full respect and understanding towards others. The city at the Bega Canal is the only city with three theaters in three languages (Romanian, German and Hungarian). Timisoara has evolved has not only culturally and economically, but also as a university city. Until today Timisoara is called "Little Vienna", a name that bear the inhabitants with full pride. This name owes to the city both its buildings and its charm. Timisoara is also very fond of its second nickname: "City of Roses and Parks." Among the most popular sons of the city include the famous actor Johnny Weissmuller ("First Tarzan"), the longest serving director of the Vienna State Opera, Ioan Holender and the Austrian director Robert Dornhelm. You have to experience the charm of this city. FOREWORD 2 Dipl. Econ. Simion Giurca Romanian Tourist Office 1010 Vienna - Austria
  3. 3. After Bucharest, Timisoara is the second largest city in Romania. "Little Vienna" presents itself friendly, cosmopolitan and worth visiting at any time of a year. Timisoara is the capital of the district Timis and the cultural and economic center of the Banat. The city is divided into 10 districts and has about 300,000 inhabitants. FIRST IMPRESSION 2
  4. 4. The long afliation with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy lives on in about 15,000 buildings painted in the noble Schoenbrunn Yellow or the Pastel Colors of the time. Many buildings look even more impressive, when they are dipped in light at night. Electric street lighting is available in Timisoara since December 1884. Romanias rst brewery was opened in Timisoara in 1718, it was also the rst company in the country which has been privatized (1727). Today, the brewery is part of the SABMiller Group. 1745 the rst municipal hospital of the country went into operation in Timisoara. The rst horse-drawn tram in Romania and in all of Southern Europe started in 1869. Timisoara has always been ahead of its time and has set many new standards. 4 WORLD'S LARGEST BEER MUG 6 meters high, a capacity of 11,000 liters and a weight of 2.5 tons; these are the key gures of the world record beer mug on display in Timisoara.
  5. 5. The city has a pleasing size, with easily surmountable distances. The excellent public transport and very inexpensive taxis help all "City Explorers" to overcome even longer distances quickly and effortless. Depending on the time of the year, you can either warm up in one of the friendly cafes, restaurants and pubs, or settle down in a sunny or shady spot in one of the exciting locations. A stroll is best to start in the city center, where the local Tourist Ofce is right next to the Opera House (looking towards the Opera the ofce is on the right side, in Alba Iulia Street). At the Tourist Ofce you can obtain a free map of all main attractions of Timisoara. BANAT The Banat is a historical region in Central Europe, which is now in the States, Romania, Serbia and Hungary. The term Banat derives from the territory which was gov- erned by a-Ban (Count). 5
  6. 6. As in all of Romania, religion is of great importance in Timisoara. Particularly noticeable is the vast number of different churches and faiths that are found here on a relatively narrow space. Openness and tolerance are demonstrated exemplary in Timisoara. Here you will nd a small summary of these remarkable sites. RELIGIOUS SITES 3
  7. 7. MILITARY CHAPEL Right opposite the Piata 700 youll nd the small chapel, which was built in 1801. In the period of the communist regime, the chapel was misused, but again set up in 1999 as a church. The wonderfully detailed paintings are simply stunning. CATHEDRAL OF SAINT GEORGE The foundation stone of the cathedral was laid in 1736. The cathedral has been build in the masterly style of Fischer von Erlach. Because of the Russo-Austrian Turkish War, the building was completed only in 1774. Two architects from Timisoara Johann Theodor Kostka Edler and Carl Alexander Steinlein completed the cathedral. The main altar is from the director of the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, Michel Angelo Unterberger. SYNAGOGUE IN THE CITY Unfortunately, the synagogue in the city center is closed for years and only to be admired from outside. It was built 1863-1865 according to the plans of the Viennese architect Ignatz Schuhmann. The synagogue has a capacity of about 3,000 people, making it one of the largest synagogues in Europe. 7
  8. 8. CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY THREE HIERARCHS The foundation stone was laid in 1936 and the building was completed in 1940. The cathedral is dedicated to Holy Three Hierarchs, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom. Architect of the tallest building of Timisoara (96 m), was Ioan Traianescu. The enormous building, consists out of 11 towers, it has been built on marshy ground and therefore stands on more than 1,000 concrete pillars. Atanasie Demian painted the interior of the cathedral; the Iconostasis is the work of Stefan I. Goja, it is gold plated and carved out of linden wood. The surface area of the work of art is 135 m. In the basement is an exhibition of ancient religious art. The bones of the Saint Ion cel Nou de la Prtos, the Patron Saint of the Romanian Orthodox believers in the Banat are kept here. 8
  9. 9. MILLENNIUM CHURCH The impressive religious house was created according to the plans of architect Ludwig Ybl. It has a capacity of 3,000 believers and was erected from 1896 to 1901. About 4 million bricks were used to build this Neo-Romanesque landmark, which also includes some Gothic Revival features. The monumental altar painting of the largest Catholic Church in Timisoara comes from George Vastag and shows Mary with a crown and scepter, and the infant Jesus in her arms. The church was established late 1901 to mark the millennium celebrations of the Kingdom of Hungary and inaugurated by Bishop Alexander III. Dessewfy. CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY The building was built in the Baroque Style and was originally home to the Roman Catholic Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. After the construction of the Millennium Church, this holy house was donated to the Greek Catholic parish in Fabric. 9
  10. 10. The Hungarian Reformed Church was named after the nearby statue of the Virgin Mary. The statue was erected in memory of the leader of the Transylvanian peasant revolt of 1514 (Gyrgy Doja). The church itself was built in 1902, built in the style of English Gothic. The church so far has also great signicance in the recent history of Romania, as it was the starting point of the revolution of 1989. The sermons of the pastor of the church, Laszlo Tokes, which showed the poor conditions in the country, eventually led to his transfer. Since he refused to be silent and move to another community, an attempt had been made to remove him by force. The use of violence against the pastor and the solidarity of the population eventually set the spark and started the revolution REFORMED CHURCH ON MARY 10
  11. 11. The Bega, also called Bega Channel is a Romanian-Serbian River, a little over 250 km long. It rises in the Carpathian Mountains and ows near Titel in the Serbian province of Vojvodina in the Tisa. The Tisa in turn ows into the Danube. The Bega has a gradient of only 18 cm per kilometer and is channeled over long distances and usually navigable. BEGA 4
  12. 12. Count Claudius Florimund Mercy led the channeling of Bega under the technical supervision of military professionals in the years 1727-1733. That was a huge technical achievement for its time. By dehumidifying the swamps, the Banat Heath became a very fertile farmland. The area around Timisoara was very boggy at this time, so the construction and regulation of Bega was nally also the reclamation of the land. This also led to the termination of Malaria, against the settlers of this region had to ght. Over the years, the channel has been extended and always repaired. In 1958 the ship trafc with the neighboring states was stopped, and in 1967 the entire commercial use of the channel ceased. Since 2011, the channel is partially navigable and nishing work is in progress. If the channel starts operating again, Timisoara will become a port of the Pan-European Corridor VII. Timisoara would be connected to other harbors from the North Sea to the Black Sea. 12
  13. 13. The Union Square is unofcially referred to as Cathedral Square. The historically valuable Unirii Square is the oldest square in the city and is situated in the center of Cetate, the rst district, within the limits of the former fortress. The pastel colors of the churches and palaces, which were mostly built in the 18th and 19th Century, create a very special bohemian air. UNION SQUARE 5