Narrative as a research method

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Narrative as a Research method - workshop at TAR College 2nd May 2012

Text of Narrative as a research method

  • 1. Narrative as a research methodMurray HunterUniversity Malaysia Perlis

2. HolisticSpatialConceptualMusic Intuitive PreciseImaginationTimeOrientatedEmotional Empathy Mathematical LanguageLogicalReasoned 3. This gives us two views of the world 4. We view the world through field dependence or independence (Witkin 1954, 1973, 1977) 5. Left Hand SideSequential processing, A to b to CRight Hand SideLooks at facts and detailed informationSplits the world into concrete andHolistic processing, big pictureidentifiable categories orientatedLogical cause and effect reasoningVisual and spatialLinear thinking from task to task Looks at the whole rather than piecesFollows on pre-existing fixed rules Analogic: sees similarities andMaths and science resemblancesStatistically inclinedFeelings and emotional thoughtSystematic appraisalPhilosophy and religionThinks in words and languageThinks in imagesUtilizes the concept of time, past andTransformativepresent IntuitiveObjective reality based Looks for relationships, patterns, makesLogically strategizes associationsSplits things apart Looks for unbounded connectionsKnows Lumps things together: connectorAcknowledgesImaginationReality based Present and future orientatedRealistic Looks at possibilitiesSafety, risk adverseUses symbols and imagesBelievesAppreciatesFantasy basedImpetuousAdventurous, risk taker 6. Please say the coloursYellow Blue OrangeBlack Red GreenPurple Yellow RedOrange Green BlackBlue Red PurpleGreen Blue Orange An example of hemisphere conflict 7. The Prefrontal CortexThe ability to manipulate The ability to imagine 8. The Fourth Factor Emotions influence our decisions beforereasoning, a leftover from our primal existence. 9. Is it rationality or emotion you that makes you decide to buy a car likethis? 10. Groups have primal narratives 11. Why do we buy fine fragrances? 12. A cat also has consciousness 13. CommunicateCats can solve problems andlearn 14. Cats can act sociallyHave mental maps 15. Many apes have empathy 16. The dawn of man 17. Consciousness is partly a socialphenomenaNarrative is the heart ofconsciousness 18. Narrative expresses ..Hopes Feelings Ethical & spiritual codesSocial hierarchies Empathy Imagination Self identity Fears Our introspectionsSharing valuesSharing beliefs Means of transferring ideasProblem solvingOur projectionsOur relational position to society Meaning 19. The Four Part Brain 3. Empathic/Imaginative 2. Holistic1. Rational4. Emotional 20. We live in a quantitative World 21. Scientific Management 22. Newtonian Physics 23. So when research is considered 24. Causation, correlation or even reverse causation?White, Roderick E. , Thornhill, Stewart andHampson, Elizabeth, Entrepreneurs andEvolutionary Biology: The RelationshipHigh-testosteronebetween Testosterone and New Ventureentrepreneurs leadCreation (2003). Babson College, BabsonKauffman Entrepreneurship Researchbigger--but lessConference (BKERC), 2002-2006profitable--firmsENTREPRENEURS ANDEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY:THE RELATIONSHIPBETWEEN TESTOSTERONEAND NEW VENTURE What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture 25. The fallacy of factors leading tosuccessFactors contributing to the growth of small manufacturing firms:data from AustraliaThe key successfactors, distinctivecapabilities, and strategicthrusts of top SMEs in 26. NewEconomic PollutionParadigmsGrowth Fossil Fuels Export/Import Transport Farm Raw materialsTransport Government PowerProduction Transport Diversity generationWarehouse ManagementSupermarket ConflictResearch &CommunityDevelopmentConsumption Education Regulation Competition & TensionAir Transport Poverty &UnhappinessDevelopment WasteHealth UncertaintyA simplified environment 27. More Complex Problems 28. Losing sight of variables Location Climate Genetic MaterialHumidityCollection TemperaturePurchaseSunshine hoursTopography UV radiation Plant physiology SeasonsSlope & drainagePropagationYield andRainfall characteristics ChemicalConstituents of theHumus NutrientsMethod of extraction Essential Oil Extraction timeCompactness Drainage & waterholding qualities Pest & weed pHcontrolPre-harvest handlingMineral residuals Irrigation & preparation Plant densitiesSoil typeTime & method of harvestAgronomic Harvest & Soil Practices ExtractionPractices 29. Does quantitative research give meaning? 30. Reductionist Quantitative ResearchYou might learn a lot about alittle bitBut what is itHolistic Qualitative Research really? 31. What is Meaning? 32. Situational and contextualmeaning does not make forgood quantitative research 33. Can quantitative research clear up ambiguity? 34. Even simple environments are complex and have multipleperspectives 35. Attempt toDeny an unhappyimpress listener Keeping Facefamily lifeKeeping up with theNarrative device of Jonesoptimism We would be very happy if our children undertookhigher educationCultural Could be the truthexpectations Showing off Peoples statements can have multiple meanings 36. Narrative as Truth Narrative as hopeNarrative as we wantothers to see us Narrative as we see our self Narrative as we want tosuppressReality 37. What is thetruth anyway? 38. All such notions as causation,succession and primary agent relationships are all figments of theimagination which can have multipleexplanations. Narrative lets us see the explanation from the actorspoint of view. 39. A descriptive theory is a narrative 40. A descriptive theory is the way things are which in most disciplines we rarely get right. 41. Normative theories are commonnarratives 42. A normative theoryis apredictive, instrumental, or positivist theory 43. All great normative theories? Which one works? 44. Is there such thing as a positivist theory that actually works? 45. The truth keepschanging as we see new things 46. Narrative can accommodate ambiguity muchbetter than qualitative research 47. Isntmanagementambiguous?Chaotic environment Stakeholder wants PowerThe environmentNegotiationsCompetitorsMotivations PoliticsManagement prerogativeLabour relationsParadoxes, cost- Personalities quality, sales-profit, hierarchy- knowledge etc 48. Narrative is empirical research justas quantitative research is 49. Ricoeur argues that there is an integral connection between narrative and action.Narratives lead individuals to intervene in thecourse of things. The action derives fromintention or motivation, based on theparticular narratives of anindividual, irrespective of whether these areself generated, after appropriation from aculture. 50. Drummond argues that narrative is thefundamental scheme for linking individualhuman action and events into interrelatedaspects of an understandable composite. 51. Drummond argues organisation culture, leadership, conflictand change are narratives. One way of framing this is thatorganisation culture is composed of many narratives withenough coherence between them to give a sense of thewhole.36 Change occurs when new narratives replace oldnarratives. If the change is superficial, then the narrativescould be described as morphostatic; (changing the chairs onthe Titanic would not stop the ship sinking); or morphogenic;where things will never be the same again.37 Hence, it can beargued that the linking of strategy and complexity throughnarrative theory collectively extends each theory and providesa theoretical underpinning to understand better theseconcepts and the linkages between them. 52. A theoretical link must now be made betweennarrative and strategy and again the work ofRicoeur is instructive, beginning with narrativeand the individual. This will lead us to make theconnection between narrative and organisationalstrategy which in turn leads to the concept ofidentification since an organisations strategyrequires individuals (members oftheorganisation) it identify with it, or support it, atleast in some minimal ways. 53. Narrative as a story The way that stories are told, how meaning isconstructed to achieve the understanding of theaudience. Groups events into cause and effect action andinaction. Organises time and space in very compressed form. The voice of the narrative can vary; whose story isbeing told and from whose perspective? Narrative plot refers to everything audibly or visiblypresent, i.e. selective. Narrative story refers to all the events, explicitlypresented or referred. 54. We use narratives or stories to make sense of our lives and the world around us. There different ways in which we use the narrative form: As children we listen to fairytales andmyths/legends. As we grow older, we read shortstories, novels, history and biographies. Religion is often presented through a collection ofstories/moral tales e.g. the Bible, theRamayana, etc. Scientific breakthrough is often presented asstories of an experimenter/scientists trials. Cultural phenomena such as plays, films, danceand paintings tell stories. News events are told as stories. Dreams are retold as stories. 55. The world is seen from our own perspective our narrative 56. Memory is in I & Me Mode 57. MemoryTruthKnowledgeBeliefImagination 58. How manyChalices are in Leonardo daVincis paintingof the Last Supper? 59. We see what we want to see 60. Experience introduces feeling & emotion to learning 61. Meaning Dear Honorable Dato/Prof./Assoc.Prof./Dr./Mr/Mrs/Miss,Kindly be informed that there will be a talk on "Science ofKnowledge", scheduled as follows :Date : 9th September 2011 (Friday)Time : 3.00 pm ~ 4.30 pmVenue : PPIPT Meeting Room, Block AAttendance : Compulsory to all academic staffsSpeaker : Honorable Prof. Dato Wira Dr. Mohd Salleh Bin Hj DinYour commitment and attendance is deeply appreciated.Thanking in advance. Confidence? 62. The Things we thinkThe things we do The intentions we haveThe things we buyAre all governed by our own stories 63. MeaningW