2. Biography of Immanuel Kant A German philosopher. Born in 22nd April 1724 and died on 12th February 1804. Kant was the last influential philosopher of modern Europe during the Enlightenmentbeginning with thinkers John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume. First philosopher to have thought philosophy at a university; a professor of philosophy. Kant had a firm foundation on past philosophical studies. He was an expert both with rationalism of Descartes and Spinoza, plus the empiricism of Berkeley and Hume. Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible.
3. Kant was influenced by Hume Beginning with his "Inaugural Dissertation" (1770), Kant patiently worked out the most comprehensive and influential philosophical idea of the modern era. His central thesis was that the possibility of humanknowledge presupposes the active participation of the human mind is deceptively simple, but the details of its application are notoriously complex. Kant, influenced by the works of David Hume, held that we could only know what we experience, what he called the phenomenal, and that we could never know that which is beyond experience. In doing so, Kant ruled out the possibility of our demonstrable knowledge of God, without ruling out the existence of God. But he also argued for an absolute morality based on free will and rationality, referred to as the "Categorical Imperative. Kants biggest contribution: Copernican Revolution, Categorical imperative, Transcendental Idealism and Kantianism.
4. das Ding an sich A philosophical term often used by Immanuel Kant, among others, roughly translated as 'the thing as such' or 'the thing in itself'. With that, Kant meant an existence that is independent, not connected to the understanding of man. Das Ding an Sichis the world by itself, before it is adjusted to fit the requirements of reason. According to Kant, the only fact we can know about das Ding an sich is that such things do exist. Since everything we perceive is affected by our ideas about understanding and reason, das Ding an sichis of course entirely beyond our grasp. Thus, declared Kant, we should not waste our time wondering about what things are really like, since we can never get accurate, untainted information about things as they truly are. Kant was content to concentrate on the appearances of things - otherwise, we could never get any information at all, since everything we think we know about things as such is already tainted by our perception.
5. Time and space Kant thought that the rationalists and empiricists were partly right but also partly wrong, and that they went too far in their own respective claims. He looks at the world in both senses and reasoning. Kant agreed that all of our knowledge of the world comes from our sensations, but he also agrees that reasoning plays an important role to how we perceive the world around us. For example, if you put on a red glass, you would see everything in red. But it does not mean everything is in red. This is when Kant perceived the phenomena called Time and Space. According to Kant, Time and Space are our two forms of intuition and it is innate. Time and Space belongs to the human mind. Everything we experience in this world is a process of time and space. The mind does not just receive sensations from the outside world, but it also leaves its imprints on the way we apprehend on the world.
You could compare it when you pour water into a glass pitcher. The water adapts itself to the pitchers form. In the same way, our perceptions adapt themselves to our forms of intuition.
7. Kant also claimed that it is not only the mind that conforms to things. Things also conforms to the mind. Kant called it the Copernican Revolution in the problem of human knowledge. By that he meant that it was just as new and just as radically different from former thinking as when Copernicus claimed that the earth revolved around the sun and not vice versa.
8. He could think that the rationalists and empiricists were right up to a point. Even the law of causality -- which Hume believed man could not experience--belongs to the mind, according to Kant.
9. Hume claimed that it was only force of habit that made us see a causal link behind all natural processes. According to Hume, we cannot perceive the black billiard ball as being the cause of the white balls movement. Therefore, we cannot prove that the black billiard ball will always set the white one in motion.
10. The law of causality is eternal and absolutely simple because human reason perceives everything that happens as a matter of cause and effect.
11. Kants philosophy stated that it is inherent to us. He agreed with Hume that we cannot know with certainty what the world is like in itself. We can only know what the world is like for me-- or for everybody. Which brings him to his greatest contribution to the world.