1.Evolution of EvolutionWhat is evolution? What was going on this time period? Who influenced the idea of evolution and how? What is natural selection? How did giraffes get such long necks?
2. Darwins Theory of Evolution Evolution process by which modern organisms havedescended from ancient organismsCHANGEOVER TIME Scientific Theory well-supported testableexplanation of phenomena that have occurred in thenatural world 3. Time Period Most EuropeansBelieved Earth was only a few thousand years old. The world was geometrical and regimented and willnever change. Rocks, mountains, etc were created by catastrophicevents that were rarely witnessed. 4. Influences Carl Linneaus If he could fine the patternin nature he could getinside of Gods head. Classified flowers intogroups based onanatomical differences Believed that the Earthwas complete no gaps,no failures Buffon Was there a separatecreation for each variety? 5. Influences William Smith Believed that things had changedsince creation Hypothesized that different animalslived at different times Georges Cuvier Used comparative anatomy tocreate replicas of extinct animals inwhich only a few fossils werefound Hypothesized that animals becameextinct due to catastrophes inhistoryBUT what abouthumans?? 6. Influences William Buckland George Hutton People were not wiped out by catastrophes Wind and water erosion take a very long because they were not there.time, thus the Earth must be older than the A giant flood seemed to explain all of theBible predicts. unexplainables. BUT why were many fish killed off? George Stroke Volcanoes and old lava being cut through by rivers was more evidence that Earth is older than the Bible predicts. 7. Lamarcks Evolution Hypothesis One of the first to Hypothesis realize that living things By selective use or disuse ofchanged over timeorgans, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime. These traits (acquired or not) could be passed down to their offspring. Over time, this process led to a change in species. 8. Lamarcks Evolution Hypothesis Tendency Toward Perfection All organisms have an innate tendency toward complexityand perfection. Organisms will continually change andacquire features that bring them closer to this goal. Use and Disuse Organisms could alter the size or shape of particular organsby using their bodies in new ways. Inheritance of Acquired Traits Acquired characteristics could be inherited. 9. Lamarcks Evolution Hypothesis Incorrect in Several Ways Did not know howtraits wereinherited Did not know thatan organismsbehavior had noeffect on itsheritablecharacteristics 10. Influences Charles Lyell Hypothesized that geologicalprocesses were the same asthey were in past as they arenow The rate at which thingschanged was very slow. Thus,in order for all of these slowprocesses to have taken place,the Earth must be older than afew thousand years. Principles of Geology Very influential to CharlesDarwin 11. Influences Thomas Malthus The population had the potential to grow ata rate faster than food could be supplied. Ifthe population kept growing at this rate,overpopulation was imminent unlessreproduction and/or survival was stopped.Struggle for Existence 12. Charles Darwin 13. Travels Voyage of the Beagle Charles Darwin sailed around the world via the H.M.S. Beagle from 1831-1836 Collected plant and animal species Read latest scientific books (i.e. Lyells Principles of Geology) Recorded his observations and thoughts throughout journey 14. Galapagos Islands 15. Observations Many plants and animals seemed remarkably well-adapted to theirenvironments. Puzzled by where different species lived and did not live If Earth could change over time, couldnt life itself change over time? Drew connections between Malthus work and his observations of plants andanimalsMalthus argument was stronger for plants and animals than forhumans. An overwhelming number of offspring die, while only a few surviving offspring succeed in reproduction. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/02/5/l_025_01.html 16. Charles Darwin Artificial Selection Artificial Selection natureprovided the variation, andhumans selected thosevariations that they founduseful Examples farmer breeds his best livestock Darwin artificially selectedpigeons to show an analogousexample of how his mechanismfor evolution could have Reasoned that nature, given moreworked. than a million years, could surelyachieve what he had artificiallyachieved in a short amount of time. 17. Influences Alfred Russell Wallace Collected beetles along theMalaysian coast and noticedvariations in the beetles thatcorresponded with the habitat inwhich they were found Made some conclusions and wrotea letter to Charles Darwin 18. Conclusions On the Origin ofSpecies Proposed natural selection(mechanism for evolution) Presented evidence that evolutionhas been taking place for millionsof years Driven to publish his theory camefrom the fact that Wallace hadcome up with the same idea. Even though he was afraid of the Churchs reaction to his ideas he wanted to get credit for his work. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/11/2/e_s_2.html 19. Darwin v. Lamarck How didgiraffes get such long necks?