Central Asia Review

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  • 1. Spring Final Exam Pop quiz Chapter test Unit test Midterm exam Final exam Degree of detail Q:When was the Battle of Agincourt? A:October 25, 1415 Q:What weapon enabled the English to win the Battle of Agincourt? A:The longbow Q:Which two kings was the Battle of Agincourt fought between? A:King Henry V of England and King Charles VI of France Q:In what way did the use of English bowmen at the Battle of Agincourt contradict the rules of chivalry? A:Common peasants were able to fight and kill knights and noblemen Q:Why was the Battle of Agincourt so significant? A:the use of English bowmen against French knights signaled the end of feudal armies and the beginning of English and French nationalism

2. Central Asia Review Spring Final Exam Review 3. Indus River

  • Geography
    • Himalayas to NE; Hindu Kush to NW, passable only via the Khyber Pass
    • Indus River flows SW to the Arabian Sea
    • Monsoons
      • Winter monsoons are dry
      • Summer monsoons are wet

4.

  • Domestication
    • As early as 7000 BCE, sheep and goats
    • 3200 BCE, settled society
    • 2500 BCE, cities of the Harappan Civilization
  • Harappan planning
    • uniform bricks; grid system; indoor plumbing
    • Written language, untranslated
    • Mysterious end

5. Aryan invasions

  • 1700-1200 BCE, Indo-Europeans crossed the Caucasus, then Hindu Kush
  • Pushed indigenous people to south
    • Called themdasas
  • Vedasrecord the migration story in four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for rituals

6. Caste System 7. Hinduism

  • Upanishads , dialogue between teacher and student, 750-550 BCE
  • reincarnation based on karma
  • Jains

8. Buddhism

  • Siddartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) sought enlightenment
  • 4 Noble Truths
    • everything is suffering and sorrow
    • cause of suffering is desire
    • end suffering by ending desire
    • follow the Eightfold Path to end desire

9. 10. Islam

  • Muhammad(570 CE) was born in Mecca and marriedKhadijahwhen he was 25.
  • At 40 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and revealed the Quran.
  • Hijrah : 622, forced to fleeMeccato Yathrib (renamedMedina )
    • In 630, theummareturned to Mecca

11. 5 Pillars and Laws

  • Faith (Shahada)
    • There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
  • Prayer (Salat)
    • 5 times a day, toward Mecca
  • Alms
  • Fasting
  • Pilgrimage
    • hajj
  • Quran
  • Revealed word of Allah
  • Sunna
  • The example of Muhammads life
  • Sharia
  • Islamic legal system formed on the basis of the Quran and the Sunna

12. Initial Spread

  • 632,Abu Bakrbecomes the first caliph (or successor)
    • The rightly guided caliphs were able to establish Muslim control over the Arabian peninsula
    • By 750 the Islamic state stretched 6,000 miles, from the Atlantic ocean to the Indus valley.
  • Berber armies invade Spain and are stopped only 100 miles from Paris at theBattle of Toursin732 .

13. Sunni-Shia split

  • In 655 the caliph Uthman was murdered; his successor,Ali(cousin & son-in-law to Muhammad) was also murdered.
  • TheUmayyadscame to power, moved the capital to Damascus, and began living more extravagantly
    • Shiites believe the caliph should be descended from Muhammad
    • Sunni believe in following Muhammads example
    • Sufi believe Islam should be more religious and less secular

14. Crusades

  • 1096-1204
  • Urban IIcalled for European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslim caliphate.
  • Effects:
    • Byzantine Empire weakened; Papal power declines; Kings power increases; increased religious intolerance; Italian cities expand trade and grow rich; trade increases between Europe and the Muslim world; European technology improves

15. Mongols

  • Steppes
    • wind-swept, dry grass lands across central Asia
  • Unification
    • 1206, Temujin becomes Genghis Khan, or universal ruler
    • 1221 Central Asia is under Mongol control

16.

  • Pax Mongolica
    • Period of relative peace during the 13th and 14th centuries
  • Khanates
    • Steppes divided into 4 khanates for governance
      • Khanate of the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate, and Khanate of the Great Khan

17.

  • China
    • Ghenghis Khan begun invasion; Ogadai continued; Kublai Khan completed the invasion in 1279
    • Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368
    • Attempted invasions of Vietnam and Japan
    • Marco Polo and other foreigners

18. Ottoman Empire 19. The Ottomans

  • 1299 - 1922
  • Ghaziunited underOsmanwho unites Anatolia under his rule
    • Timur the Lamecomes out of Central Asia, conquers Russia and Persia, and crushed the Ottomans
  • Mehmet IIreunites the Ottomans and conquers Constantinople, renaming itIstanbul
  • Selim the Grimexpands Ottoman rule into the Holy Land

20.

  • Suleimanthe First, the Lawgiver expands the empire to its greatest size
  • The empire is governed under thedevshirmesystem, which used Christian slaves ( janissaries ) as bureaucrats.
    • Ethnic enclaves are organized asmillets , each with their own governance
  • The empire is weakened by a tradition of the new sultan killing his brothers and preventing new sons from gaining education or experience

21. Local governors, generals, tax officials Religious & ethnicmillets Sultan Imperial Council Divan (drawn fromdevshirme ) Social & Military Administration Religious & Judicial Administration 22. Safavid Empire 23. Safavid Empire

  • Aligned with the Shia
  • The redheads were led byIsmailin 1499 conquered modern-day Iran; he assumed the title of shah
    • He was a religious tyrant and ordered the murder of every Sunni in Baghdad in response, Selim the Grim murdered 40,000Shia in the Ottoman Empire

24.

  • The "Golden Age of the Safavids came underShah Abbasin 1587.
    • He blended the cultures of the Safavid, Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds.
    • Reorganized the military to be loyal to the Shah
    • Established political & economic relations with Europe(Europe wanted Persian carpets)
    • Brought Chinese artisans to decorateIsfahan

25.

  • Cultural Blending : when two or more cultures interact.
    • Occurs as a result of one or more of the following:
      • Migration
      • Trade
      • Conquest
      • Religious conversion

26.

  • Decline
    • Killed or blinded his most able sons
    • Incompetent grandson came to power
    • Afghani tribes attacked from the east,Ottomans attacked from the west, and the empire shrank
      • 1736,Nadir Shah Afshartook command and conquered land into India.He was so brutal in his conquests that his own soldiers assassinated him to stop the carnage

27. 28. Mughal Empire

  • Gupta Empirehad fallen in 550 CE to invading Hunas from the northwest.
    • The empire fragmented and was ruled byrajputs , sons of kings
  • Turkish armies invaded in 1000 and a series of sultans ruled from Delhi.

29.

  • 1526,Babur (great-grandson of Timur the Lame)led 12,000 troops from Kabul and defeated 100,000 troops, conquering Delhi.
    • These lands were lost by Baburs son,Humayan

30.

  • Ak