1. Spring Final Exam Pop quiz Chapter test Unit test Midterm exam Final exam Degree of detail Q:When was the Battle of Agincourt? A:October 25, 1415 Q:What weapon enabled the English to win the Battle of Agincourt? A:The longbow Q:Which two kings was the Battle of Agincourt fought between? A:King Henry V of England and King Charles VI of France Q:In what way did the use of English bowmen at the Battle of Agincourt contradict the rules of chivalry? A:Common peasants were able to fight and kill knights and noblemen Q:Why was the Battle of Agincourt so significant? A:the use of English bowmen against French knights signaled the end of feudal armies and the beginning of English and French nationalism
2. Central Asia Review Spring Final Exam Review 3. Indus River
Himalayas to NE; Hindu Kush to NW, passable only via the Khyber Pass
Indus River flows SW to the Arabian Sea
Winter monsoons are dry
Summer monsoons are wet
As early as 7000 BCE, sheep and goats
3200 BCE, settled society
2500 BCE, cities of the Harappan Civilization
uniform bricks; grid system; indoor plumbing
Written language, untranslated
5. Aryan invasions
1700-1200 BCE, Indo-Europeans crossed the Caucasus, then Hindu Kush
Pushed indigenous people to south
Vedasrecord the migration story in four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for rituals
6. Caste System 7. Hinduism
Upanishads , dialogue between teacher and student, 750-550 BCE
Muhammad(570 CE) was born in Mecca and marriedKhadijahwhen he was 25.
At 40 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and revealed the Quran.
Hijrah : 622, forced to fleeMeccato Yathrib (renamedMedina )
In 630, theummareturned to Mecca
11. 5 Pillars and Laws
There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
5 times a day, toward Mecca
Revealed word of Allah
The example of Muhammads life
Islamic legal system formed on the basis of the Quran and the Sunna
12. Initial Spread
632,Abu Bakrbecomes the first caliph (or successor)
The rightly guided caliphs were able to establish Muslim control over the Arabian peninsula
By 750 the Islamic state stretched 6,000 miles, from the Atlantic ocean to the Indus valley.
Berber armies invade Spain and are stopped only 100 miles from Paris at theBattle of Toursin732 .
13. Sunni-Shia split
In 655 the caliph Uthman was murdered; his successor,Ali(cousin & son-in-law to Muhammad) was also murdered.
TheUmayyadscame to power, moved the capital to Damascus, and began living more extravagantly
Shiites believe the caliph should be descended from Muhammad
Sunni believe in following Muhammads example
Sufi believe Islam should be more religious and less secular
Urban IIcalled for European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslim caliphate.
Byzantine Empire weakened; Papal power declines; Kings power increases; increased religious intolerance; Italian cities expand trade and grow rich; trade increases between Europe and the Muslim world; European technology improves
wind-swept, dry grass lands across central Asia
1206, Temujin becomes Genghis Khan, or universal ruler
1221 Central Asia is under Mongol control
Period of relative peace during the 13th and 14th centuries
Steppes divided into 4 khanates for governance
Khanate of the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate, and Khanate of the Great Khan
Ghenghis Khan begun invasion; Ogadai continued; Kublai Khan completed the invasion in 1279
Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368
Attempted invasions of Vietnam and Japan
Marco Polo and other foreigners
18. Ottoman Empire 19. The Ottomans
1299 - 1922
Ghaziunited underOsmanwho unites Anatolia under his rule
Timur the Lamecomes out of Central Asia, conquers Russia and Persia, and crushed the Ottomans
Mehmet IIreunites the Ottomans and conquers Constantinople, renaming itIstanbul
Selim the Grimexpands Ottoman rule into the Holy Land
Suleimanthe First, the Lawgiver expands the empire to its greatest size
The empire is governed under thedevshirmesystem, which used Christian slaves ( janissaries ) as bureaucrats.
Ethnic enclaves are organized asmillets , each with their own governance
The empire is weakened by a tradition of the new sultan killing his brothers and preventing new sons from gaining education or experience
21. Local governors, generals, tax officials Religious & ethnicmillets Sultan Imperial Council Divan (drawn fromdevshirme ) Social & Military Administration Religious & Judicial Administration 22. Safavid Empire 23. Safavid Empire
Aligned with the Shia
The redheads were led byIsmailin 1499 conquered modern-day Iran; he assumed the title of shah
He was a religious tyrant and ordered the murder of every Sunni in Baghdad in response, Selim the Grim murdered 40,000Shia in the Ottoman Empire
The "Golden Age of the Safavids came underShah Abbasin 1587.
He blended the cultures of the Safavid, Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds.
Reorganized the military to be loyal to the Shah
Established political & economic relations with Europe(Europe wanted Persian carpets)
Brought Chinese artisans to decorateIsfahan
Cultural Blending : when two or more cultures interact.
Occurs as a result of one or more of the following:
Killed or blinded his most able sons
Incompetent grandson came to power
Afghani tribes attacked from the east,Ottomans attacked from the west, and the empire shrank
1736,Nadir Shah Afshartook command and conquered land into India.He was so brutal in his conquests that his own soldiers assassinated him to stop the carnage
27. 28. Mughal Empire
Gupta Empirehad fallen in 550 CE to invading Hunas from the northwest.
The empire fragmented and was ruled byrajputs , sons of kings
Turkish armies invaded in 1000 and a series of sultans ruled from Delhi.
1526,Babur (great-grandson of Timur the Lame)led 12,000 troops from Kabul and defeated 100,000 troops, conquering Delhi.