Goes into some detail on the biology of apples and pears. Goof background material for students in horticulture, agriculture, botany, biology and other endeavors.
Text of The biology of apples and pears (the biology of horticultural crops)
Biology of Apples and Pears is a comprehensive reference book on all aspects of pomology at the organ, tree and orchard level. It provides detailed information on propagation, root and shoot growth, rootstock effects, canopy development in relation to orchard design, owering, pollina- tion, fruit set, fruit growth, fruit quality factors and quality retention in store. It also deals with mineral nutrition, water relations and irrigation, diseases and pests, and biotechnology. The book emphasizes the scien- tic basis of modern tree and orchard management, and fruit storage. It describes key cultivar differences and their physiology and genetics, and environmental effects and cultivar environment interactions in tropical and subtropical as well as temperate zone conditions. It is writ- ten for fruit growers, extension workers, plant breeders, biotechnologists and storage and crop protection specialists as well as for researchers and students of pomology and horticulture. hasawealthofexperienceinthescienceoffruitgrowing. He held senior positions at East Malling Research Station and was chair- man of the Orchard and Plantation Systems (High Density Planting) working group of the International Society for Horticultural Science for many years. Recently he was in charge of the Horticultural Research Centre, Marondera, Zimbabwe. He has visited fruit growing areas and lectured to fruit growers and scientists in countries, spanning four continents. He has published extensively in the primary literature and has contributed to, edited or co-edited numerous volumes on various aspects of fruit trees and plantation systems.
BIOLOGY OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS Existing texts in horticultural science tend to cover a wide range of topics at a relatively supercial level, while more specic information on individual crop species is dispersed widely in the literature. To ad- dress this imbalance, the Biology of Horticultural Crops presents a series of concise texts, each devoted to discussing the biology of an impor- tant horticultural crop species in detail. Key topics such as evolution, morphology, anatomy, physiology and genetics are considered for each crop species, with the aim of increasing understanding and providing a sound scientic basis for improvements in commercial crop production. Volumes to be published in the series will cover the grapevine, citrus fruit, bananas, apples and pears, and stone fruit. The original concept for this series was the idea of Professor Michael Mullins, who identied the topics to be covered and acted as General Editor from until his untimely death in . Biology of the Grapevine, Michael G. Mullins, Alain Bouquet and Larry E. Williams Biology of Citrus, Pinhas Spiegel-Roy and Eliezer E. Goldschmidt
BIOLOGY OF APPLES AND PEARS John E. Jackson
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge , United Kingdom First published in print format ISBN-13 978-0-521-38018-8 hardback ISBN-13 978-0-511-06533-0 eBook (NetLibrary) Cambridge University Press 2003 2003 Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521380188 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. ISBN-10 0-511-06533-7 eBook (NetLibrary) ISBN-10 0-521-38018-9 hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of s for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Published in the United States by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org
Contents Preface page xi Acknowledgements xii Introduction The special characteristics of apple and pear production: setting the scene for their scientic study Recommended reading References The growing of apples and pears The history of apple and pear growing Trade in fresh apples Trade in pears Apple and pear products Climatic conditions in major centres of production Recommended reading References Apples and pears and their relatives Taxonomy The place of cultivars in apple and pear production Apple scion cultivars Apple rootstocks Rootstock effects on scion performance Other characteristics of apple rootstocks Major apple rootstocks Pear scion cultivars v
vi Pear rootstocks References Apple and pear root systems: induction, development, structure and function Introduction Root initiation Root growth of the rooted cutting and during tree establishment Orchard tree root systems Functions of roots Special features of apple and pear seedling roots References The graft union, grafting and budding Introduction Formation of the graft union Union formation in T-budding and chip budding Incompatibility Double working Effects of temperature on grafting and budding Effects of height of budding or grafting on scion vigour and cropping Effects of interstocks on root and shoot growth and cropping References Mechanisms of rootstock and interstock effects on scion vigour Introduction Mechanisms of rootstock and interstock effects on vigour Conclusions and comments Recommended reading References The shoot system Introduction
vii Buds Bud dormancy Dormancy through correlative inhibition Seasonal bud dormancy Shoot extension growth Water shoot growth Secondary thickening References Leaves, canopies and light interception Leaf anatomy and morphology Leaf production and growth Leaf senescence and shed Individual tree and orchard leaf area Effects of light interception and of within-tree shade Shading by stems, fruits and leaves Canopy light interception and distribution References Photosynthesis, respiration, and carbohydrate transport, partitioning and storage Introduction Photosynthesis Respiration Net CO exchange by canopies Source-sink relationships and carbohydrate partitioning Net carbon exchange and orchard productivity References Flowers and fruits Juvenility Flowering Pollination Female ower fertility Fruit set
viii Fruit growth Fruit skin colour, russet and cracking References Eating quality and its retention Introduction Fruit sensory quality Changes during maturation and ripening Readiness for harvest Control of ripening and senescence Calcium and fruit eating-quality Calcium nutrition Other nutrients and fruit eating-quality Recommended reading References Mineral nutrition Introduction Nutrient requirements Symptoms of deciency or excess Nitrogen nutrition Phosphorus nutrition Potassium nutrition Calcium nutrition Magnesium nutrition Manganese nutrition Copper nutrition Boron nutrition Iron nutrition Zinc nutrition Effects of aluminium on nutrition Interactions between nutrients Orchard management and tree nutrition Recommended reading References
ix Water relations Introduction Soil water availability Evaporation and evapotranspiration Basic concepts in tree water relations Roots and tree water relations Stem water relations Leaf water relations Fruit water relations Integrated effects of water stress Irrigation Droughting Effects of ooding References Diseases, pests, and resistance to these Introduction Virus and MLO diseases Bacterial disease Fungal diseases Pests Replant problems References Biotechnology of apples and pears Propagation in vitro Genetic transformation Molecular markers References Cultivar Index General Index
Preface Biology of Apples and Pears is written for undergraduates and postgraduate students of horticultural science, for scientists from other disciplines who need a core reference book on these crops, and for fruit growers and technical advisers. There is already a vast amount of published work on apple and pear biology and production. However, much of this literature is difcult to interpret and apply in the context of rapid changes in areas of production hence environ- mental constraints and of cultivars with basic differences in physiology.This book addresses these issues directly by emphasising responses to environment, and cultural and storage technology at the cultivar level. Biology of Apples and Pears deals with the biology of their eating quality and its retention as well as of their tree growth and cropping. It also emphasises the factors underlying the dramatic change from orchards of large trees to modern high-density orchards of dwarfed trees, and also those underlying modern techniques of fruit tree irrigation and nutrition. Throughout the book the results of research on apple and pear biology are linked to the relevant current concepts in more basic seciences. The numer- ous references, therefore, cover both crop-specic and basic-science research papers and reviews. Given the breadth of coverage, from anatomy and histology through physio- logy to biotechnology and disease, pest and environmental stress resistance there must inevitably be questions of relative emphasis. The guiding principle followed has been to concentrate on those aspects of the biology currently most important to the production of apple and pear fruits through to