Experimental ANIMAL MODELfor INDUCING DIFFERENT Disease CONDITIONs.Presented byDr. Sindhu K.MVSc Scholar, Dept. of VPT,COVAS, Pookode.An animal with a disease either the same as or like a disease in humans.Animal models are used to study the development and progression of diseases and to test new treatments before they are given to humans.Animals with transplanted human cancers or other tissues are called xenograft models.
Anti-inflammatory models.Acute modelsSub acute modelsChronic modelsOVA-challenged Mouse Asthma ModelAcute LPS modelChronic LPS ModelFormalin-induced Chronic Inflammationi. Acute modelsCarrageenan-induced Paw Edema in RatsHistamine Induced Paw Edema in RatsAcetic Acid-Induced Vascular PermeabilityXylene Induced Ear Edema (Thickness and weight parameter)Arachidonic Acid-Induced Ear EdemaPhorbol Myristate Acetate-Induced Ear Edema in MiceMyeloperoxidase (MPO) AssayOxazolone-induced Ear Edema in Mice
ii. SUB-ACUTE MODELCarrageenan Induced Granuloma Pouch ModelFormalin-induced Paw Edema
iii. Chronic ModelCotton Pellet-Induced Granuloma in RatsThe Glass Rod Granuloma
ANTI-pyretic MODELSBrewers Yeast induced pyrexia Animals should be fasted 6 hrs. before the yeast administration. Basal rectal temperature of animals were measured. Aqueous 20% w/v of brewers yeast in 2% gum acacia @ a dose of 10-20 mg/kg body weight administered subcutaneous near the neck/groin of the animals. Rectal temperature (RT) after 19 hrs. RT increase in at least 0.6 c is considered as positive. RT should be taken after administration of test substance @ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 hrs. Compare with initial temperature. Plot the Graph.
Lipopolysaccharide induced pyrexia Overnight fasting + adlibitum water. Inject 0.3 g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (from E. coli) i.v. through the marginal ear vein dilated with xylene. Immediately after administration of LPS, withdraw food. After19 hrs. record rise in rectal temperature. RT rise in 0.6 c or more is considered as positive. Record the RT consecutively for 5 hrs. Compare recorded with Basal rectal temperatures (TC). Plot the graph.
SVTA regular, abnormally fast heart beat (tachycardia) caused by rapid firing of electrical impulses from a focus above the atrioventricular node (A-V node) in the heart. Its calledsupraventricularbecause thetachycardia originates above the ventricles of the heart.
Supraventricular tachycardia models.Atrial flutter.Atrial flutteris an abnormality in the beating of the heart. Such abnormalities, whether in the rhythm or speed of the heartbeat, are known as arrhythmias. Atrial flutteris similar toatrial fibrillation, a common heart rhythm disorder. The difference between flutter and fibrillation is that flutter is well organized while fibrillation is not.
Atrial fibrillationis an irregular and often rapid heart rate that commonly causespoor blood flow to the body. Duringatrial fibrillation, the heart's two upper chambers (theatria) beat chaotically and irregularly out of coordination with the two lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart.Atrial fibrillation (AF) models.Ventricular fibrillation models.ANIMAL MODELS OF HYPERTENSION
ANIMAL MODELS FOR DIABETES MELLITUSDiet/nutrition induced diabetic animals
Chemically induced diabetic animals Surgical diabetic animalsTransgenic/knock-out diabetic animals.Anti-cholesteremic animal model.General behavioral profiles: Awareness, Alertness, Touch response, Pain response & Sound response.Exploratory behavioral pattern evaluation: Y maze test & Head dip test. Spontaneous motor activity: Photoactameter.Forced motor activity (muscle relaxant activity): Rota rod test & Horizontal wire test.
Animal models for cns depression & sedative activity.CNS depression models: Hole cross test & Open field test.Antianxiety models: Elevated plus maze test, Hole board test & Open field test.Model to evaluate sedative activity: Barbiturate induced sleep model.
Animal models for antianxiety activities.Animal models for evaluation of anticonvulsant activity & antiepileptic drugsPentylene tetrazole induced convulsionsMaximal electric shock induced convulsionsGenetic seizure modelsPhotosensitive baboon (Papio papio)Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)
Animal Models Used in the Screening of Antiepileptic Drugs.Genetic seizure modelsSeveral genetic model of epilepsy validated using clinically effective drugs (Partial-onset seizures: Kindling, Status epilepticus, Senegalese baboons (Papio papio),Generalized seizures)Photosensitive baboon (Papio papio)Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)
Analgesic activity 39References.Anupama A. Suralkar, Prashant S. Sarda, Mahesh M. Ghaisas, Vishnu N. Thakare, & Dr. Avinash D. Deshpande. 2012. Lecture notes on inflammation. Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Pimpri, Pune.Bhat L. K., Nandakumar K. and Bhodankar S. L. 2005. Animal models to induce cardiac arrhythmia. Indian J. Pharmacol. 37(6): 348-357. Srinivasan K. & Ramarao P. 2007. Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: An overview. Indian J Med Res. (1): 451-472.Kanakam Vijayabhaskar, Vurugonda Ramadevi, Kalakota Chaitanyaprasad, Sadhiram Rajeshkumar, Divya Sripada and G. Himabindu. 2014. Evaluation of anti-cholesteremic and anti-lipidemic activity of seed extract of Achyranthes aspera in diet induced hyperlipidemia model in rats Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 6(5):1247-1250.Google images & Wikipedia.