JP Movement and Emergency Imposed In 1975
JP Movement and Emergency Imposed In 1975Shalender, B. Tech P-III, 14155070Shubham Meena, IDD P-III, 14154007
The Pre Emergency CrisesGujarat and Bihar MovementThe JP MovementThe EmergencyPublic Response to the EmergencyTowards Ending the EmergencySurprise Elections 1977
The Pre Emergency CrisesEconomic Situation worsened: 1971 Bangladesh war, Failed monsoon from 1972-73, Crude oil prices increased four fold in 1973. It led to large scale industrial unrest and strikes in 1972-73 and All India Railway Strike in May 1974.Law and Order Situation worsened: Strikes, student protests, gheraos and bandhs during 1974-75 which often turned violent. In May 1973, there was a mutiny by PAC in Uttar Pradesh.
The Pre Emergency CrisesPolitical Situation Worsened: Congress had been declining as an organization, incapable of dealing with the political crisis. Corruption was growing everywhere and people believed that ruling party and administration were involved in it. Sanjay Gandhi maruti contract.Growing detachment of three major social groups from congress: I. Middle Classes: Due to rise in prices and corruption. II. Rich Peasants: They perceived impending land reforms as threat. III. Capitalists: Growing talk of socialism, nationalization of banks and coal mining industry, anti-monopoly measures.
Gujarat and Bihar UnrestThere were two popular movements against the congress governments in Gujarat and Bihar. Bihar movement was led by Jayaprakash Narayan. In Jan 1974, anger rose over rising prices of foodgrains, cooking oil and other essential commodities which soom took the form of a student movment. Mar 1975, Indira Gandhi dissolved the Gujarat assembly and announced fresh elections to it in June.Bihar movement, inspired by Gujarat agitation, was started in Mar 1974 by students. Two main features of Bihar movement were- I. JP Narayan came out of political retirement to lead it and gave a call for Total Revolution. He demanded dissolution of the assembly, asked people to setup parallel governments.
Gujarat and Bihar UnrestII. Firm refusal of Indira Gandhi to accept the demand for dissolution of the assembly.JP movement was supported by students, middle classes, traders and non-left political parties.JP movement failed to attract rural and urban poor.Indira challenged JP for upcoming elections (Feb-Mar 1976). JP accepted and formed National Coordination Committee.12 June, Justice Sinha, Allahabad Highcourt, declared Indira Gandhis election invalid on ground of election malpractices. Appeal to SC- due for hearing on 14 July.
Gujarat and Bihar UnrestJustice VR Krishan Iyer decided on 24 June that she can stay in office and speak in parliament but could not vote in it.Gujarat assembly elections: Janata Front won.JP & Coalition parties, not willing to wait for the result of her appeal to Supreme Court or the Lok Sabha elections in 8 months, decided to throw the government by forcing her to resign.On 25 June, at a rally in Delhi, JP announced a nationwide one-week campaign of mass mobilization and civil disobedience to force her to resign, would be started on 29 June.