1. C E N T R A L A S I A - R U S S I A N R E L A T I O N S A N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O by Kathy Pham - Fall 2014 2. D E F I N I N G T E R M S Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): formed when the former Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. At its conception it consisted of ten former Soviet Republics: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Cultural-Linguistic Note: Russians use two separate terms: 1. , five CIS republics 2. , a wider definition that includes lands outside the former Soviet Union 3. W H E R E I S C E N T R A L A S I A ? Not much prior involvement until 1979 Soviet Invasion 9 During this presentation, we will focus on five CIS republics: 1. Turkmenistan 2. Uzbekistan 3. Tajikistan 4. Kyrgyzstan 5. Kazakhstan 4. B A C K G R O U N D & H I S T O R Y 5. N O M A D S - S I L K R O A D - S T E P P E S - , (18661939). Trained in St. Petersburg. 6. R U S S I A & C E N T R A L A S I A ? Russians interacted with the Central Asians since the 19th century -. 1869. 7. R U D Y A R D K I P L I N G , K I M , 1 9 0 1 'Now I shall go far and far into the North, playing the Great Game... 8. T H E G R E A T G A M E Sir John Tenniel. Political cartoon depicting the Afghan Emir Sher Ali with his "friends" the Russian Bear and British Lion (1878) Great Britain v. Soviet Union Fought for dominance over Central Asia Key events 1813-1907: 1813 Russo-Persian Treaty 1865 Russia conquers Turkestan 1887 Both Russia and Britain reach the north-west border of Afghanistan 1907 the Anglo-Russian Convention 9. C E N T R A L A S I A I N T H E S O V I E T E R A Again, the five CIS republics: Flags of Former Soviet Republics: Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (1918), Khorezm People's Soviet Republic and SSR (1920), Tajik SSR (1925), Kirghiz SSR (1925), Turkmen SSR (1925), on top: Kazakh SSR (1936) Time: 1918-1991 In 1924, Turkestan was split into Tajik ASSR (now Tajikistan), Turkmen SSR (now Turkmenistan), Uzbek SSR (now Uzbekistan), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (now Kyrgyzstan). Kazakh SSR was established on December 5, 1936. 10. C E N T R A L A S I A I N T H E S O V I E T E R A Population Demographic Shift: Stalin expelled Volga Germans, Koreans, Turks outside Russia; encouraged ethnic Russians to settle in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian territories. Ban on Religion: Primarily Sunni Muslim pre-Soviet times. Starting in the 1930s, the Soviets shut down churches and mosques. By the 1980s, ban ceased. Nationalist Revolts: Short-lived wins, majority crushed. Time: 1918-1991 11. C E N T R A L A S I A I N T H E S O V I E T E R A Time: 1918-1991 Cotton Farming: Large industry in Uzbekistan, later a large cause for the Aral Sea shrinkage Natural Resources & Industrialization: After World War II, the Soviets rapidly industrialized Kazakhstan, and started prospecting for oil in Central Asia. Oil was found in Uzbekistan, both oil and gas - in Turkmenistan Metallurgy > Nuclear Development: Uranium produced in Uzbekistan. Nuclear testing sites open. 12. N O N S U S T A I N A B L E P R A C T I C E S = A R A L S E A S H R I N K A G E 13. " " 29 1957 . - , , , , ... C H E R N O B Y L , K Y S H T Y M / M A Y A K , C O U N T L E S S N U C L E A R D I S A S T E R S I N T H E U S S R 14. T O D A Y 15. E C O N O M I C S B Y C O U N T R Y - P U S H F A C T O R F O R M I G R A N T W O R K E R S National GDPs from highest to lowest: Kazakhstan ($149.06 billion) vs. Tajikistan ($5.64 billion) - World Bank data 2010 National Trade from highest to lowest: Kazakhstan ($55 billion) vs. Tajikistan ($1.06 billion) - Harvard Center for International Development 2010 According to Carnegie Endowment article (reading), Tajikistan greatly depends on migrant labor as many as 1.5 million of its 6.9 million people work abroad, the vast majority of them in Russia. Remittances from migrant labor equal to around 49% of Tajikistans GDP, super high ratio Why Tajikistan? Lets look at some charts ahead. 16. M A I N K A Z A K H S T A N E X P O R T S Economic Complexity Observatory, MIT Media Lab and the Center for International Development at Harvard University. (TC) http://atlas.media.mit.edu/ 17. M A I N T A J I K I S T A N E X P O R T S Economic Complexity Observatory, MIT Media Lab and the Center for International Development at Harvard University. (TC) http://atlas.media.mit.edu/ 18. T A J I K I S T A N & K A Z A K H S T A N CIA World Fact Book, Transparency International Country Profile,World Bank Data * P O P U L A T I O N ( 2 0 1 0 ) : 6 . 9 M I L L I O N * G D P ( 2 0 1 0 ) : $ 5 . 6 4 B * I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y R A T E ( P E R 1 K L I V E B I R T H S ) : 5 2 . 2 * L I F E E X P E C T A N C Y ( 2 0 0 9 ) : 6 6 . 9 7 Y E A R S * R E L I G I O N S : S U N N I M U S L I M 8 5 % , S H I A M U S L I M 5 % , * L I T E R A C Y R A T E ( 2 0 0 9 ) : 9 9 . 7 % * P O P U L A T I O N ( 2 0 1 0 ) : 1 6 . 3 M I L L I O N * G D P ( 2 0 1 0 ) : $ 1 4 9 . 0 6 B * I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y R A T E ( P E R 1 K L I V E B I R T H S ) : 2 9 . 1 * L I F E E X P E C T A N C Y ( 2 0 0 9 ) 6 8 . 4 3 Y E A R S * R E L I G I O N S : M U S L I M 7 0 . 2 % , C H R I S T I A N 2 6 . 2 % ( M A I N L Y R U S S I A N O R T H O D O X * L I T E R A C Y R A T E ( 2 0 0 9 ) : 9 9 . 7 % 19. C O R R U P T I O N , W E A L T H D I S T R I B U T I O N L E T S C O M P A R E . http://www.transparency.org/country/#KAZ http://www.transparency.org/country/#TJK 20. S P E C I A L T H A N K S T O : M A R I N A I N G M A N YU L D U Z I S M A T U L L A E V A O T H E R S O U R C E S : U C L A C E N T R A L A S I A N I N S T I T U T E L E C T U R E S E R I E S T R A N S P A R E N C Y I N T E R N A T I O N A L L A N A T U R A L H I S T O R Y M U S E U M W I K I P E D I A . O R G 21. I M M I G R A T I O N I S S U E S 22. G U I D I N G Q U O T E S In December 2008, the government blocked foreign workers from working as salespeople in retail and in marketplaces, which employ over 30 percent of Russias migrant workers. Russia also introduced quotas limiting the number of available work permits and introduced tougher regulations on employers. These initiatives appear to have been mostly politically motivatedthere is scant proof that migrants compete for jobs with locals. How does this sentiment compare to one in the USA? Europe? 23. G U I D I N G Q U O T E S On June 13, President Vladimir Putin signed a revised State Migration Policy, which requires foreign workers to pass Russian language and history exams to obtain work permits and, in effect, pushes more migrants to work illegally. 24. G U I D I N G Q U O T E S According to the Russian Federal State Statistics Services middle scenario projection from 2008, Russias working age population may shrink by 14 million by 2025. The UNDP reports that this decrease will result in a labor shortage that will significantly hamper Russias economic growth potential, even if labor productivity increases. To cover this shortage, the country will need to attract foreign workers. In this respect, persisting anti immigrant sentiment and the current quota system are counterproductive. Agree/Disagree? 25. F R O M T H E R E A D I N G http://cimes.pro/migration-fall-2014/ 26. F U R T H E R R E A D I N G Central Asian Labor Migrants in Russia: The "Diasporization" of the Central Asian States? http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/CEF/Quarterly/August_2007/Lar uelle.pdf Possible academic sources, books to check out later: Naomi Caffee from UCLA, Central Asian Studies at UCLA Marat, Erica. Labor migration in Central Asia: Implications of the global economic crisis. Silk Road Studies Program, Institute for Security and Development Policy, 2009. Rywkin, Michael. Moscow's Muslim Challenge: Soviet Central Asia. ME Sharpe, 1990.