“Global Employment Trends for Youth” (ILO) 2010

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The report presents the latest global and regional labour market trends for youth and specifically explores how the global economic crisis has exposed the vulnerabilities of young people around the world. In developed economies, the crisis has led to the highest youth unemployment rates on record, while in developing economies – where 90 per cent of the world’s youth live – the crisis threatens to exacerbates the challenges of rampant decent work deficits, adding to the number of young people who find themselves stuck in working poverty and thus prolonging the cycle of working poverty through at least another generation.

Text of “Global Employment Trends for Youth” (ILO) 2010

  • 1.GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR YOUTH+0.1+2.03+0.04-25.301023-00.22006.65 0.887983+1.922523006.62-0.657987+1.987523006.82-006.65 +0.10.887987+1.987523006.600.887987 +2.03+1.0075230.887984 +1.987523006.640.887985 +0.04+1.997523006.650.887986+1.984523006.66 -25.3010.327987+1.987523006.59-0.807987 023+1.987521006.650.-887987+1.987523006.65 -00.220.807987+1.987523 0.887983+1.987523006.62 006.65 0.887983+1.922523006.62-0.883988+1.987523006.63-006.65 0.894989+0.1 -0.657987+1.987523006.82 -006.65+0.1+1.987523006.650.887990+2.03 +0.887987+1.987523006.60 0.887987+2.03 +0.1+0.04 +1.0075230.887984 +1.987523006.640.887985+0.04 +2.03-25.301 +1.997523006.650.887986 +1.984523006.66-25.301 +0.04023 -0.327987+1.987523006.59 -0.807987023 -25.301 -00.22 +1.987521006.650.-887987 +1.987523006.65-00.22 023006.65 0.8079870.887983+1.922523006.62 +1.987523006.62 +1.987523 0.887983006.65 -00.22 0.887983 +1.922523006.62-0.657987 -0.883988 +1.987523006.82+1.987523006.63-006.65-006.65 -0.894989-0.657987006.65 +1.987523006.82 0.887983 -006.65 +1.922523006.62 .887 0.887987+0.887987+1.987523006.60 +1.987523006.65 0.8879870.8879900.887987-0.657987 +1.987523006.60 +1.987523006.82-006.653 220 +1.0075230.887984 +1.0075230.887984 +1.987523006.640.8879850.887987+1.987523006.64+1.987523006.600.887985 0.8879877 48 +1.997523006.65+1.997523006.650.887986 +1.984523006.66 0.887986+1.984523006.66 0.887985+1.0075230.887984 -0.327987+1.987523006.6423 +1.987523006.59 -0.8079870.327987+1.987523006.59+1.997523006.65 0.887986 -0.807987 +1.984523006.66. 9 +1.987521006.65 +1.987521006.650.-887987 +1.987523006.650.327987 0.-887987+1.987523006.59 +1.987523006.65 -0.8079870.807987+1.987523 0.887983+1.987523006.620.807987+1.987523 0.887983+1.987521006.65 0.-887987 +1.987523006.62+1.987523006.65-0.883988+1.987523006.63 -006.65 -0.894989-0.8839880.807987 +1.987523006.63 0.887983+1.987523 -006.65 0.894989 +1.987523006.62+1.987523006.650.887990+1.987523006.65-0.8839880.887990 +1.987523006.63-006.65 0.894989+1.987523006.65 0.887990 Special issue on the impact of the global economic crisis on youth August 2010

2. GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR YOUTHAugust 2010Special issue on the impact of the global economic crisis on youth International Labour Office, Geneva 3. Copyright International Labour Organization 2010First published 2010Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal CopyrightConvention. Nevertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that thesource is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publications (Rightsand Permissions), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: pubdroit@ilo.org.The International Labour Office welcomes such applications.Libraries, institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies inaccordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Visit www.ifrro.org to find the reproduction rightsorganization in your country.ISBN 978-92-2-123855-3 (print)ISBN 978-92-2-123856-0 (web pdf)ILO Cataloguing in Publication DataGlobal employment trends for youth : August 2010 : special issue on the impact of the global economic crisis onyouth / International Labour Office. - Geneva: ILO, 20101 v.ISBN: 9789221238553;9789221238560 (web pdf)International Labour Officeyouth employment / youth unemployment / labour force participation / youth / economic recession / developedcountries / developing countries13.01.3The designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and thepresentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of theInternational Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, orconcerning the delimitation of its frontiers.The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with theirauthors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinionsexpressed in them.Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by theInternational Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or process is not a signof disapproval.ILO publications and electronic products can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local offices in manycountries, or direct from ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland.Catalogues or lists of new publications are available free of charge from the above address, or by email:pubvente@ilo.orgVisit our website: www.ilo.org/publnsPrinted in Switzerland 4. ContentsAcknowledgements ...................................................................................................................................... vi1Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Organization of the report ...................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Key findings in youth labour market trends .......................................................................... 2 1.3.1 Measuring youth vulnerabilities: Summary of long-term trends, 1998-2008 (Chapter 2) ................................................................................................................... 3 1.3.2 Summary of youth labour market trends in the crisis years, 2007-09 (Chapter 3) ...... 4 1.3.3 Looking ahead, 2010 and 2011.................................................................................... 62Labour market trends for youth........................................................................................................ 7 2.1 Demographic and youth labour force trends .......................................................................... 7 2.2 Trends in youth employment ............................................................................................... 12 2.3 Trends in youth unemployment ........................................................................................... 16 2.4 Other labour market indicators for youth............................................................................. 21 2.5 Measuring working poverty among youth ........................................................................... 233The impact of the global economic crisis....................................................................................... 28 3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 28 3.2 Using labour market information to define the who, what, where and why of the crisis impact on youth ................................................................................................................... 28 3.2.1 Global and regional estimates.................................................................................... 28 3.2.2 Country-level evidence: The crisis impact on youth in the European Union ............ 32 3.2.3 The current crisis and the consequences for young people in developing regions .... 37 3.3 Are there longer-term consequences for youth? .................................................................. 42 3.4 Recovery prospects for youth in labour markets ................................................................. 444An evaluation of lessons learned in youth employment programmes ............................................ 51 4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 51 4.2 How to invest in youth employment .................................................................................... 52 4.2.1 The strategy ............................................................................................................... 52 4.2.2 Identifying the barriers youth face in the labour market ........................................... 53 4.3 Interventions to address youth employment barriers ........................................................... 55 4.3.1 Addressing technical skills mismatches .................................................................... 55 4.3.2 Addressing non-technical skills mismatches ............................................................. 56 4.3.3 Addressing slow job growth barriers ......................................................................... 57 4.3.4 Addressing discrimination in the labour market ........................................................ 59 4.3.5 Addressing inadequate job matching ......................................................................... 59 5. iv Global Employment Trends for Youth, August 2010 4.3.6 Addressing poor signalling ........................................................................................ 60 4.3.7 Addressing lack of access to start-up capital ............................................................. 60 Annex 1 World and regional tables .................................................................................................... 61 Annex 2 Country inventory of crisis response interventions directly affecting youth employment .. 67 Boxes 1Defining youth ................................................................................................................................. 1 2Why focus on youth? ....................................................................................................................... 6 3A double burden: Being female and young in the Middle East and North