French and English Baroque

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  • 1.Map of Europe, 17th century Chapter 20: The Baroque in France and England

2. Chapter 20: The Baroque in France and England Dates and Places: 1600-1750 France and England Colonial empires People: France most powerful country militarily and culturally Royal courts of France (Louis XIV) and England most important patrons of the arts French Poussinistes Wealthy urban merchant class Commoners crippled by increasing taxes, food shortage, natural disasters Georges de la Tour, Joseph the Carpenter, c. 1642. Oil on canvas, 51 1/8 x 39 . Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.1. 3. Georges de la Tour (1593-1652) Example: Influenced by Caravaggio Use of light Attention to detail from Northern followers of Caravaggio Court painter to Louis XIII Begins as genre painter, turns to religious scenes France remains Catholic Georges de la Tour, Joseph the Carpenter, c. 1642. Oil on canvas, 51 1/8 x 39 . Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.1. 4. Georges de la Tour (1593-1652) Example: Ambiguity between genre scene and religious Christ and Joseph, earth father Candle practical purpose and religious significance Warm palette Simple composition Arrested movement Georges de la Tour, Joseph the Carpenter, c. 1642. Oil on canvas, 51 1/8 x 39 . Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.1. 5. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) Example: One of the most influential French painters Recalled from Rome by Louis XIII Influences Raphael and Carracci Classicism official court style (1660-1685) Ancient Greece and Roman as reference Authority, power, order, and tradition Poussin represents favored classicism Nicolas Poussin, The Death of Germanicus, 1627-1628. Oil on canvas, 58 x 78. Minneapolis Institute of 6. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) Example: Studies Raphael, anatomy, p erspective, and ancient sculpture in Rome Work becomes model for similar subject matter Relays assassination of Roman general Nicolas Poussin, The Death of Germanicus, 1627-1628. Oil on canvas, 58 x 78. Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minnesota. Fig. 20.2. 7. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) Example: Process involves wax figures set on stage Translates literature to canvas Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos, 1640. Oil on canvas, 39 1/2 x 53 3/4. Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minnesota. Fig. 20.3. 8. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) Example: Work represents the ideal landscape Physical and rational aspect of spiritual world Classical influence seen in ruins Follows Annibale Carracci influence St. John at end of life Pendant piece (St. Matthew) missing Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos, 1640. Oil on canvas, 39 1/2 x 53 3/4. Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minnesota. Fig. 20.3. 9. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) Follows Annibale Carraccis influence Annibale Carracci, Flight into Egypt, c. 1604. Oil on canvas, 48 x 91. Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome. Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos, 1640. Oil on canvas, 39 1/2 x 53 3/4. Minneapolis Institute of 10. French Baroque Example: Leader during French Baroque Louis XIV, known as the Sun King because EVERYTHING revolved around him Divine monarchy Absolutism Military campaigns against Spain, Dutch Republic, Germany, and England Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1701. Oil on canvas, 92 63. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.4 11. French Baroque Example: France replaces Rome as the center of the art world Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV French Baroque is characterized by elegance and restraint of emotion, pomp and circumstance, pageantry, emphasis on the glories of the monarchy Louis XIV interested in classical influence epitomized in the work of Poussin The French Baroque style reflects the kings preference for Classicism Sought distinct French style Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture formed in Paris, 1648 Charles Le Brun first director Promotes virtues of Poussin and Raphael Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1701. Oil on canvas, 92 63. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.4 12. French Baroque Example: Louis XIV dressed in regalia of French monarchy Images shows pageantry of rule Symbolism of dress Crown and staff show station Shoes Louis own design to show off dance legs Cape of ermine fur, decorated in French fleur de lis Wig height related to position Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1701. Oil on canvas, 92 63. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.4 13. French Baroque Echoes van Dycks portrait of Charles I Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1701. Oil on canvas, 92 63. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 20.4 Anthony van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I Hunting, c. 1635. Oil on canvas, 811 x 6 11 . Muse du Louvre, Paris. Fig. 19.4 14. French Baroque Example: Louis renovates what was a small hunting cabin into a Golden Cage Begun 1669 by Le Vau, finished 1710 Every aspect of Versailles controlled, even gardens Center Louis bedroom Aerial view of the Palace of Versailles, France. Begun 1669. Fig. 20.6. 15. Plans of the evolution of Versailles The palace in 1668 The palace in 1674 The palace in 1680 16. Gardens and palace of Versailles in 1746, by the abbot Delagrive. Park designed by Andr Le Ntre. 17. Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, The Palace of Versailles, 1669-1685. Jules Hardouin-Mansart, The Hall of Mirrors, The Palace of Versailles, 1678- 1684. Venetian glass, 357 mirrors total, 239.5 34.4 40.4 18. Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Garden front of center block of The Palace of Versailles, 1669-1685. 19. English Baroque English Civil War (1642-1651) Charles I beheaded 1649 Oliver Cromwell (1653-1658) Restoration period (1660- c.1710) English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish monarchies restored under Charles I son, Charles II and brother James II Glorious Revolution (1688) Installs William, Prince of Orange and Mary (James daughter as King and Queen of England Bill of Rights (1689) 20. English Baroque Spans Great Fire (1666) and Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Contributions in literature (Shakespeare) and King James Bible Architecture dominates Synthesis of Palladio and Italian Baroque, particularly Bernini, and French classical style Clarity of design Subtle classisicim Christopher Wren leading British architect Rebuilds London after Great Fire (1666) 53 churches 21. English Baroque Example: Fire of London, 1666 Italian and French Baroque inspiration Combines organic flow of Italian Baroque and strict classicism of French Baroque Dome second to St. Peters in Rome at 361 high Sir Christopher Wren, St. Pauls Cathedral, 1675-1710. London, England. Fig.