Techniques for Team and Group Facilitation

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Facilitation Techniques for Agile Teams

www.luxoft.comIntroductionSvetlana MukhinaICAgile ICP, ICP-ATF, ICP-BVA, PSM IAgile and Career Coach at Luxoft Agile PracticeExperience: 12+ years in IT, Project and department management, Computer Linguistics, Technical Writing, Quality Assurance Interests: Project management, Agile transformation, Career and performance coaching, PsychologyHobbies: Horse riding, music, poker, travelling


www.luxoft.com3Warm-ups How To www.luxoft.comTeam Facilitator?Know the right answer for all questionsJudge opinion of others Evaluate group decisionsControl the conversationFight with bad opponents Take a side of good fellows Lead rescuing activities

www.luxoft.com5Team Facilitator? Invisible Professional Tactful RespectfulTrustfulUnderstandable Energizing Encouraging Open-minded

www.luxoft.com6Balance Discussion: Boost and Shape

www.luxoft.com7Agile Team Facilitator Behaviors www.luxoft.com8Agile ValuesThat is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.www.luxoft.comAgile Principles Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.Deliver working software frequently, from acouple of weeks to a couple of months, with apreference to the shorter timescale.Business people and developers must worktogether daily throughout the project.Build projects around motivated individuals.Give them the environment and support they need,and trust them to get the job done.The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.Working software is the primary measure of progress.Agile processes promote sustainable development.The sponsors, developers, and users should be ableto maintain a constant pace indefinitely.Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.Simplicity the art of maximizing the amountof work not done - is essential. The best architectures, requirements, and designsemerge from self-organizing teams.At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.

www.luxoft.comGathering Informationwww.luxoft.comBrainSwarming

www.luxoft.comWhile brainswarming, an approach pioneered by Tony McCaffrey, directly challenges the idea of brainstorming by asking - why do we need to talk in the first place? This idea is probably best explained using an example from the lives of insects. Ants solve problems by leaving signals in their environment that influences the behavior of the others. When searching for food, successful ants leave traces of pheromones along along their trails. A signal to the other ants that theres a path to dinner. If we make a problem solving graph, then humans can quietly leave their signals, i.e. their ideas, for others to build upon.

Statistics have shown that brainswarming produces 115 ideas in 15 minutes while the traditional brainstorming produces only 100 ideas in 60 minutes.12BrainSwarming on Practice

www.luxoft.comBrainSwarming Game Rules 1. Moderator chooses an insight puzzle and initiates the Brainswarming graph on the board. Moderator writes the goal at the top and the known resources at the bottom. 2. Moderator explains the insight puzzle to the group (e.g., Stuck Truck Problem). 3. Moderator explains (or reminds) the group how Brainswarming works. Here are the main points to cover. - No talking is necessary among the group while Brainswarming is going on. Simply write your contribution on a Post-It note (or on the board) and draw a line to what it should be connected to. - There are three types of contributions you could make. - First, you could break a resource into one of its parts. In this case, put your Post-It note just above the resource and draw a line to the resource. - Second, you could make a goal more specific. For example, the top goal in Figure 2, free truck from underpass, is very general. Ask yourself, How could I achieve this goal? One way is to lower the truck, so this sub-goal should go below the goal free truck from underpass. In general, ask yourself the How question to make goals more specific and concrete. - Third, you could add an interaction such as put oil from the truck engine on the top of the truck so the truck will slide more easily. On the Brainswarming diagram, this interaction is indicated very simply by adding lines that connect oil, the truck top, and slide the truck. If the interaction is not clear to people, the contributor can write it in more detail on a different part of the blackboard so as to not clutter up the Brainswarming diagram.

www.luxoft.comBrainSwarming How To

Mindmappingwww.luxoft.comTony Buzan, Author, educationalist and the creator of Mind Mapping (R)

A mind map is a diagram used to visually outline information. A mind map is often created around a single word or text, placed in the center, to which associated ideas, words and concepts are added. Major categories radiate from a central node, and lesser categories are sub-branches of larger branches. Categories can represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items related to a central key word or idea.

Guidelines for creating mind maps:Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your mind map.Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.Each word/image is best alone and sitting on its own line.The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker, organic and thinner as they radiate out from the center.Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also to encode or group.Develop your own personal style of mind mapping.Use emphasis and show associations in your mind map.Keep the mind map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches.

16MainMapping How To www.luxoft.comVisualization 17Mindwriting/Brainwriting

www.luxoft.com18Mindwriting/Brainwriting How To www.luxoft.comExploring Information www.luxoft.comHome and Away (World Caf)

www.luxoft.comThe knowledge caf method has multiple origins with links to other related methods such as The World Cafe. Elizabeth Lank developed the concept creating a physical and mobile cafe area in the 1990s. It has been popularised by Charles Savage[1] and Entovation International [2] and in recent years by David Gurteen, a UK-based consultant specialising in knowledge management. Eunika Mercier-Laurent uses a similar principle for her Innovation cafs.[3]21World Caf Principles

www.luxoft.comWorld Caf How To www.luxoft.comSix Thinking Hats

www.luxoft.com24Six Thinking Hats How To www.luxoft.comoptimist vs pessimist / pro vs con


www.luxoft.com26Check-in How To www.luxoft.com27Evaluating Information www.luxoft.comVoting Techniques

www.luxoft.com29Voting Techniques How To www.luxoft.comPro/Con List

www.luxoft.comA list of arguments for and against some particular contention or position. These take several forms, including lists of advantages & disadvantages, lists of criticisms & defenses, and etc.

31Pro/Con List How Towww.luxoft.comAffinity Line

www.luxoft.comAffinity Line How Towww.luxoft.com34Prioritization Matrix

www.luxoft.comKANO Model

www.luxoft.comKANO and Prioritization Matrix How Towww.luxoft.com37Dealing with Dysfunctional Behavior www.luxoft.comGroup Dynamics

www.luxoft.com39Choosing the Level of Facilitation Interventionwww.luxoft.comChoosing the Level of Facilitation Interventionwww.luxoft.comChoosing the Level of Facilitation Interventionwww.luxoft.comChoosing the Level of Facilitation Interventionwww.luxoft.comChoosing the Level of Facilitation Interventionwww.luxoft.comFunctional Behavior PatternsInvolvement during meetings

Giving constructive feedback

Asking powerful questions

Providing specific examples

Active listening

Sharing information

Respecting the speaker

Confirming understanding

Being loyal to different opinions

Encouraging collaboration

www.luxoft.comDysfunctional Behavior Patterns

Providing unrelated details

Expressing strong negative reaction

Ignoring others opinion

Using lots of unknown terms

Distracting participants

Playing blaming game

Excusing for all the time

Criticizing without recommendations

Complaining on everything

Whispering with neighbors

Making generalizations Talking loudly Sitting silently during all discussion Withholding information Expressing strong emotions

Stealing ideas of participants

Repeating same ideas Trolling participants www.luxoft.com46Stages of Dysfunctional Behavior

From: The Secrets of Facilitation by Michael Wilkinson Physical attacking someone

Leaving the room in disgustVerbal attack directed at participants

Negative comments directed at participantAudible sights of displeasure

Negative physical reaction to discussing

Doing other work on session Side conversations Folding arms, facing door or window

Silence, lack of participation

Arriving late, leaving early

Severity of Disruption Degree Of Dysfunction As the degree of dysfunction increases, the severity of disruption caused by the dysfunction increases as well www.luxoft.com47Game on Dysfunctional Behavior Identificat