Trauma, PTSD & Traumatic Grief

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    22-Dec-2014

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Course Description (From www.PESI.com): Attend this day of training and leave with a brand new toolkit of skills, interventions, and principles for rapid success with traumatized clients. Join Jamie Marich and learn the standard of care for treatment in the field of traumatic stress and its key ingredients. Implement evidence-based treatment protocols and interventions for establishing safety, desensitizing and reprocessing trauma memories, metabolizing and resolving grief/loss and finally, assisting clients in reconnecting to lives full of hope, connection, and achievement. Jamie is a certified EMDR Therapist and approved consultant through the EMDR International Association (EMDR). She is additionally a member of the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, the International Association of Trauma Professionals (IATP), and has earned Certification in Disaster Thanatology. Jamie began her career in social services as a humanitarian aid worker in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina opening her eyes to the widespread, horrific impact of traumatic stress and grief. Objectives: Describe the etiology and impact of traumatic stress on the client utilizing multiple assessment strategies. Assess a clients reaction to a traumatic event and make an appropriate diagnosis. Explain how grief, bereavement, and mourning are accounted for in the new DSM-5. Implement interventions to assist a client in dealing with the biopsychosocial manifestations of trauma, PTSD, and traumatic grief/complicated mourning. Utilize appropriate evidence-based interventions to assist a client in dealing with the biopsychosocial-spiritual manifestations of trauma. Explain the effects of trauma on the structure and function of the brain.

Transcript

  • 1. Trauma, PTSD & Traumatic Grief Jamie Marich, Ph.D., LPCC-S, LICDC-CS Youngstown/Warren, OH Affiliate Faculty, International Association of Trauma Professionals @jamiemarich @dancingmindful

2. About Your Presenter Licensed Supervising Professional Clinical Counselor Licensed Independent Chemical Dependency Counselor Affiliate Faculty, International Association of Trauma Professionals (IATP) 13 years of experience working in social services and counseling; includes three years in civilian humanitarian (Bosnia- Hercegovina) Specialist in addictions, trauma, EMDR, dissociation, performance enhancement, grief/loss, mindfulness, and pastoral counseling Author of EMDR Made Simple, Trauma and the Twelve Steps, and Trauma Made Simple (forthcoming) Creator of the Dancing Mindfulness practice 3. What led you to todays workshop? 4. Learning Objectives Describe the etiology and impact of traumatic stress on the client utilizing evaluation tools. Assess a clients reaction to a traumatic event, Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD Explain the DSM-5 changes as they relate to both PTSD and grief- related disorders Implement interventions to assist a client in dealing with the physical manifestations of trauma/PTSD/traumatic grief Utilize appropriate evidence-based interventions to assist a client in dealing with the psycho/socio/emotional manifestations of trauma/PTSD/traumatic grief Explain the effect of trauma on the structure and function of the brain 5. www.traumamadesimple.com/powerpoin t 6. Trauma 7. Once youve been bitten by a snake, youre afraid even of a piece of rope. -Chinese Proverb 8. Etymology What does the word trauma mean? 9. Etymology Trauma comes from the Greek word meaning wound What do we know about physical wounds and how they heal? 10. Etymology Appreciating the wound metaphor is the heart of understanding emotional trauma and how to treat it. 11. DSM PTSD entered into the DSM-III in 1980, largely as a result of the Vietnam War Other names had been used unofficially in the field over the years: soldiers heart shell shock battle fatigue operational exhaustion hysteria 12. DSM-IV-TR Nutshell Definition of PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (APA, 2000) Actual or perceived threat of injury or death- response of hopelessness or horror (Criterion A) Re-experiencing of the trauma Avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma Heightened arousal symptoms Duration of symptoms longer than 1 month Functional impairment due to disturbances 13. DSM-5 Nutshell Definition of PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (APA, 2013) Exposure to actual or threatened a) death, b) serious injury, or c) sexual violation: direct experiencing, witnessing Intrusion symptoms Avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma Cognitions and Mood: negative alterations Arousal and reactivity symptoms Duration of symptoms longer than 1 month Functional impairment due to disturbances 14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria A. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, in one (or more) of the following ways: 1. Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s). 2. Witnessing, in person, the traumatic event(s) as it occurred to others. 3. Learning that the traumatic event(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend; cases of actual or threatened death must have been violent or accidental. 4. Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse); this does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless this exposure is work- related. 15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria B. Presence of one (or more) of the following intrusion symptoms associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning after the traumatic event(s) occurred: 1. Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s). (Note: In children older than 6 years, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the traumatic event(s) are expressed.) 2. Recurrent distressing dreams in which the content and/or affect of the dream are related to the traumatic event(s). (Note: In children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.) 3. Dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) are recurring. (Such reactions may occur on a continuum, with the most extreme expression being a complete loss of awareness of present surroundings.) (Note: In children, trauma-specific reenactment may occur in play.) 4. Intense or prolonged psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s). 5. Marked physiological reactions to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s).reminders of the traumatic event(s) 16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria C. Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning after the traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by one or both of the following: 1. Avoidance of or efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s). 2. Avoidance of or efforts to avoid external reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations) that arouse distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s). 17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria D. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by two (or more) of the following: 1. Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as head injury, alcohol, or drugs) 2. Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (e.g., I am bad, No one can be trusted, "The world is completely dangerous, My whole nervous system is permanently ruined). 3. Persistent, distorted cognitions about the cause or consequences of the traumatic event(s) that lead the individual to blame himself/herself or others. 4. Persistent negative emotional state (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame). 5. Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities. 6. Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others. 7. Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., inability to experience happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings). 18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria E. Marked alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by two (or more) of the following: 1. Irritable behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation) typically expressed as verbal or physical aggression toward people or objects. 2. Reckless or self-destructive behavior. 3. Hypervigilance. 4. Exaggerated startle response. 5. Problems with concentration. 6. Sleep disturbance (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless sleep). 19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria F. Duration of the disturbance (Criteria B, C, D, and E) is more than 1 month. G. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. H. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., medication, alcohol) or another medical condition. 20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria Specify whether: With dissociative symptoms: The individuals symptoms meet the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, and in addition, in response to the stressor, the individual experiences persistent or recurrent symptoms of either of the following: 1. Depersonalization: Persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached from, and as if one were an outside observer of, ones mental processes or body (e.g., feeling as though one were in a dream; feeling a sense of unreality of self or body or of time moving slowly). 2. Derealization: Persistent or recurrent experiences of unreality of surroundings (e.g., the world around the individual is experienced as unreal, dreamlike, distant, or distorted). Note: To use this subtype, the dissociative symptoms must not be attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts, behavior during alcohol intoxication) or another medical condition (e.g. complex partial seizures). Specify if: With Delayed Expression: If the full diagnostic criteria are not met until at least 6 months after the event (although the onset and expression of some symptoms may be immediate). Subtype: PTSD in children younger than 6 years 21. DSM-5: Trauma & Stressor-Related Disorders Reactive Attachment Disorder Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder Acute Stress Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Adjustment Disorders Other Specified Trauma-and-Stressor Related Disorder Unclassified Trauma-and-Stressor Related Disorder 22. Trauma: small-t Adverse life experiences Not necessarily life threatening, but definitely life-altering Examples include grief/loss, divorce, verbal abuse/bullying, and just about everything else The trauma itself isnt the problemrather, does it get addressed? Is the wound given a chance to heal? If it was traumatic to the person, then its traumatic. According to the adaptive information processing model, these adverse life experiences can be just as valid and just as clinically significant as PTSD-eligible traumas. 23. BREAK TIME 24. Worden (2002/2008) Grief is the experience of loss in ones life Bereavement defines the loss to which a person is trying to adapt Mourning is the process one goes through adapting to the loss Complicated mourning: when the adaptation is insufficient, it leads to functional impairment 25. George Engel, M.D. (1961) Loss of a loved one is psychologically traumatic to the same extent that being severely wounded or burned is physiologically traumatic. The process of mourning is parallel to the process of physical healing. 26. Grief, Mourning & DSM-5 Removal of the bereavement exclusion from the major depressive disorder diagnosis New Section III Diagnosis: Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder 27. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria A. The individual experienced the death of someone with whom he or she had a close relationship. B. Since the death, at least one of the following symptoms is experienced on more days than not and to a clinically significant degree and has persisted for at least 12 months after the death in the case of bereaved adults and 6 months for bereaved children: 1. Persistent yearning/longing for the deceased. In young children, yearning may be expressed in play and behavior, including behaviors that reflect being separated from, and also reuniting with, a caregiver or other attachment figure. 2. Intense sorrow and emotional pain in response to the death. 3. Preoccupation with the deceased. 4. Preoccupation with the circumstances of the death. In children, this preoccupation with the deceased may be expressed through the themes of play and behavior and may extend to preoccupation with possible death of others close to them. 28. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria C. Since the death, at least six of the following symptoms are experienced on more days than not and to a clinically significant degree, and have persisted for at least 12 months after the death in the case of bereaved adults and 6 months for bereaved children: Reactive distress to the death 1. Marked difficulty accepting the death. In children, this is dependent on the childs capacity to comprehend the meaning and permanence of death. 2. Experiencing disbelief or emotional numbness over the loss. 3. Difficulty with positive reminiscing about the deceased. 4. Bitterness or anger related to the loss. 5. Maladaptive appraisals about oneself in relation to the deceased or the death (e.g., self-blame). 6. Excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss (e.g., avoidance of individuals, places, or situations associated with the deceased); in children, this may include avoidance of thoughts and feelings regarding the deceased. 29. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria Social/Identity Disruption 7. A desire to die in order to be with the deceased. 8. Difficulty trusting other individuals since the death. 9. Feeling alone or detached from other individuals since the death. 10. Feeling that life is meaningless or empty without the deceased, or the belief that one cannot function without the deceased. 11. Confusion about ones role in life or a diminished sense of ones identity (e.g., feeling that a part of oneself died with the deceased). 12. Difficulty or reluctance to pursue interests since the loss or to plan for the future (e.g., friendships, activities). 30. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder: DSM-5 Criteria D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. E. The bereavement reaction is out of proportion to or inconsistent with cultural, religious, or age-appropriate norms. Specify if: With Traumatic Bereavement: bereavement due to homicide or suicide with persistent distressing preoccupations regarding the traumatic nature of the death (often in response to loss reminders), including the deceaseds last moments, degree of suffering and mutilating injury, or the malicious or intentional nature of the death 31. The Classic Kbler-Ross (1969) Stages Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Have you ever thought of a client as being stuck in this process? 32. A Clients Perspective: Lily Burana (2009) That whole Kubler-Ross thing? The separate stages of Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Dorothy and Toto, or whatever? TOTAL CRAP. What you get when someone dies is all those feelings ALL AT ONCE, warping and spinning around like griefs bad trip. 33. A Clients Perspective: Lily Burana (2009) PTSD means, in talking over beer terms, that youve got some crossed wires in your brain due to the traumatic event. The overload of stress makes your panic button touchier than most peoples, so certain things trigger a stress reaction- or more candidly- an over-reaction. Sometimes, the panic button gets stuck altogether and youre in a state of constant alert, buzzing and twitchy and aggressive. 34. A Clients Perspective: Lily Burana (2009) Your amygdala- the instinctive flight, fight, or freeze part of your brain- reacts to a trigger before your rational mi...