- 1. The Appendicular skeleton
2. The appendicular skeletonconsists ofArm + ShoulderLeg + Pelvic GirdleGirdle Scapula Os Coxa Clavicle Femur Humerus Patella Radius Tibia Ulna Fibula Carpals Tarsals Metacarpals Metatarsals Phalanges Phalanges 3. Your body is your cheat sheet.To remember what whole bones look like, think about where they are,and what they do how they move.Lets start with some simple examples. 4. Whats This? 5. Whats This?Cranial or postcranial?Axial or appendicular? 6. Humerus Where is it? Upper arm(anatomically, the arm; thelower part is the forearm) What does it do? Itrotates at the shoulder, andit flexes at the elbow. You now know everythingyou need to know to orientand side the intacthumerus. 7. Humerus The shoulder is a highlymobile joint, so logically itsanatomy must permit freemovement. The elbows motion is morerestricted. Its a hinge, witha limited range ofmotion, so its anatomy isconsistent of that. This enables you todistinguish proximal fromdistal. 8. Terminology The humerus is a long bone. Ithas a shaft, called adiaphysis, and two ends, calledepiphyses. The proximal end is smoothbone thats rounded, like a ball.This is called a head. The distal end has roundedprojections of smooth bonewhere the humerus articulateswith other bones. These areasof articulation are calledcondyles. Projections of bone next tocondyles are calledepicondyles. 9. HUMERUS The head is proximal andmedial. The condyles aredistal, and the rounded one(called the capitulum) islateral. The epicondyles are distaland the medial epicondyleis bigger than the lateralepicondyle. Now you can tell proximalfrom distal and medial fromlateral. 10. humerus The proximal humerus hastwo rough projectionsbelow the head anteriorly.These are called tubercles(the greater and lesser). The distal humerus hasdepressions on the anteriorand posterior surfaces. Adepression on bone iscalled a fossa. There aretwo shallow onesanteriorly, and one deepone posteriorly. 11. Humerus Head is proximal andmedial. Tubercles are proximal andanterior. Condyles are distal andproject more anteriorly. The olecranon fossa is deepand posterior, and theresonly one of it. The coronoid and radialfossae are shallow, andthere are two of them. 12. What are these? Cranial or postcranial? Axial or appendicular? 13. RADIUS AND ULNA Where are they? Theradius and ulna are thebones of the forearm. What do they do? Theyflex at the elbow and theypivot right below it. This tells you what youneed to know to distinguishthe radius from theulna, and how to sidethem. 14. RADIUS and ulna The ulna is the medialbone of your forearm.When you bend yourforearm, youre using yourulna. The radius is the lateralbone of your forearm.When you pronate orsupinate yourforearm, youre using yourradius. 15. Radius and ulna Remember, medial andlateral refers to beingtoward or away from themidline in standardanatomical position. So when we say theradius is lateral, we meanthat its on the lateral sideof the forearm when theskeleton is in standardanatomical position. 16. Radius and ulna Another way to rememberthe position of the bones isthat the radius is on thethumb side of your forearm. When you rotate yourforearm, your thumbmoves. Thats your radiusrotating around your ulna.The ulna stays still, theradius moves around it. 17. RADIUS AND ULNA RADIUSULNA Round head proximally Olecranon process (hookfor the elbow) proximal and Major articulation with concave anteriorlywrist distally (largeconcavity) Makes minimalarticulation with wrist Ulnar notch is medial and distally (small head withdistalstyloid process) Distal end: concave Radial notch is lateral andanteriorly, small tubercles proximalposteriorly 18. The hand The hand consists ofcarpals (the wrist),metacarpals (the palm),and phalanges (thefingers). Well skip the hand for nowand talk about it in theAnthropology section. 19. Clavicle and scapula 20. Clavicle Where is it? Anterior part ofthe pectoral girdle. What does it do? Stabilizesshoulder joint. smoother superiorly thaninferiorly thick and rounded medially broad and flat laterally anterior surface is convexmedially and concavelaterally. (You can feel thison yourself.) 21. Scapula Where is it? Theshoulderblade. What does it do?Articulation betweenhumerus and torso. Point of triangle is inferior Concave surface is anterior Spine is posterior andsuperior Fossa for articulation withhead of humerus is lateral 22. Whats this? 23. femur Where is it? The thigh. What does it do? Mobilehip joint proximally, flexesat knee distally. Head and neck proximaland medial. Trochanters proximal andlateral/posterior. Condyles andepicondyles distal. 24. Patella Where is it? Thekneecap. What does it do?Improves functionality ofknee joint. Anatomical siding: anteriorsurface is rough.Superior/proximal surfaceis flat (you can feel this onyourself). Lateral facet isthe larger. Siding trick: put on tablewith rough surface up andpoint away from you. Itfalls to the side its from. 25. Tibia Where is it? Large boneof the lower leg. What does it do? Flexesat the knee proximally andat the ankle distally. On the medial side of thelower leg. Two flat condylesproximally. The medial islonger. Tuberosity anteriorly. 26. Tibia The medial face of theanterior shaft is convexand lies close to the skin(you can feel it onyourself). The lateral face of theanterior shaft is concave(you feel muscle onyourself when you touchthere). The distal end has anarticulation for the fibulalaterally and a malleolus(large bone projection)medially. 27. Fibula Where is it? Smaller boneof the lower leg. What does it do?Stabilizes the lower leg andankle. The fibula shaft is complex,so well avoid the detail onthat for now. To side, hold it with eitherend up with the articularfacet towards you. Thefacet is on the side thebone is from. 28. Foot The foot consists of tarsals(ankle), metatarsals(arch), and phalanges(toes). Its complex, so well talkabout it in detail in theanthropology section. 29. Os Coxa The two oscoxae, combined with thesacrum, make up thepelvis. The os coxa consists ofthree parts, which start outas individual bones: theilium, the ischium, and thepubis. The pubis is anterior. Theilium is superior. Theischium is inferior. 30. Os Coxa On the anterior oscoxa, theres a large hole.A hole in bone is called aforamen. This particularone is called the obturatorforamen. One more word to learn:ramus. The obturatorforamen is bordered by theiliopubic and ischiopubicrami. (Rami is plural oframus). 31. Os Coxa The ilium is large, flat, andcurved. It makes up thecrest of your hip. The ischium issmaller, thick, and verydense. Its inferior marginis marked by ischialtuberosities. You sit onthem. The pubis is relativelygracile, and its anterior. 32. Os Coxa Iliac crest is superior Sciatic notch is posteriorand inferior Auricular surface(articulates with sacrum) isposterior and medial Acetabulum (articulateswith femur) is lateral andopens anteriorly. 33. What to remember Know the names of thebones. Know where they are, andwhat they do. That willenable you to side them. How a bone moves is thebiggest help to identifying itwhen youre new toosteology. 34. REVIEW 35. REVIEW 36. FINISNext: the axial skeleton.