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Pharmacokinetic 1 Route of administration By Dr . Safia A. Al-rezami . Dr .safia A alrezami

routes of drug adminstration

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Page 1: routes of drug adminstration

Pharmacokinetic 1Route of administration By Dr . Safia A. Al-rezami .

Dr .safia A alrezami

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What mean Routes of Drug Administration?-The path by which a Drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is come into contact with the body . - May be systemic \ topical .The possible routes of drug entry into the body may be divided into classes :*Enteral.*Parenteral.*Inhalation (Pulmonary absorption).*Topical Application.

1- INTRODUCTION

Dr .safia A alrezami

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1- Routes

Dr .safia A alrezami

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1-Enteral Routes

Drug placed directly in the GI tract, desired effect is systemic (non-local), substance is given via the  digestive tract-oral  -sublingual  

-buccal-rectum Absorption through the rectum

NUMBER ONE

Dr .safia A alrezami

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route 1-Oral

Dosage from :1-tablets

2-capsules3-powder 

4-syrup5-mixture suspension 

6-emulsion

1- Enteral Routes

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Advantages

1-Convenientcan be self administered, pain free, easy to take, more safe and acceptable to patient.

2-Cheap compared to most other parenteral routes.

3-Systemic distribution

Disadvantages

1-Absorption variable absorption slow or irregular

2-First-pass effect  drugs absorbed orally are initially transported to the

liver via the زportal vein3-Esophageal ulceration 

-irritation to gastric mucosa nausea and vomiting.4-Destruction of drugs by gastric acid and digestive juices . insulin, oxytocin destroyed in gut

route 1-Oral

1- Enteral Routes

Dr .safia A alrezami

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2-Sublingual route

Dis advantage : unpleasant taste and Only for lipid soluble drug. Dr .safia A alrezami

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1- Enteral Routes

3 -Buccal route

the area inside the mouth between the lining of cheek (the buccal mucosa ) and the teeth / gums . Certain medications are designed to be given bucally .Buccal (as opposed to oral) administration usually results in a more rapid onset of action, since the medication need not pass through the digestive system and can be absorbed directly through the skin. There is current research on developing buccal morphine, as well as insluine . Some sedatives can be given buccally, e.g. midazolam .

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Absorption through rectum various drugs

in suppository or enema form Like sublingual not effect by first pass

metabolism or enzyme

4 -Rectum route

1- Enteral Routes

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Advantages

1-Unconscious patients and children, if patient is nauseous or vomiting  . 

2. The metabolism of drugs by liver is minimized.

3.Good for drugs affecting the bowel such  as laxative.

Disadvantages

1-Absorption incomplete irregular in lower rectum.

2. Irritation.

3- Un–accept route by patient .

route 4-rectal

1- Enteral Routes

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Need in 1-poorly absorbed drug from GIT e.g insulin2-Unconscious patients3-Rapid onset of action4-Control over the actual dose of drug Dosage from :( ampule ,vials).Three major parenteral :Intravascular (IV)placing a drug directly into the blood stream.Intramuscular(IM)drug injected into skeletal muscle. Subcutaneous(SC)Absorption of drugs from the subcutaneous tissues.

11- Parenteral Routes

2-Parenteral route

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Advantages

1- Direct to the blood.

2-If drug un stable in GIT.

3- NO first pass metabolism.

4-For un conscious patient .

Disadvantages

1- Need sterility .

2- Need experience.

3-Painful.

4- Can not adverse the effect

11- Parenteral Routes

Parenteral route

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Use

•Suitable for large volume, irritating drugs.• Must inject slowly as a rule.• Complete bioavailability.• E.g Thiopentol, diazepam IV for quick effect

Advantages• Direct. • No first pass effect .• IV inj. Immediate effects.• Valuable for emergency.

Disadvantages• Requires IV access.• Hard to remove.• Vascular injury.• Lack of sterility may cause viral hepatitis or AIDS.

11- Parenteral Routes

Intravenous (IV)

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Use

•Suitable for small volume of oil drugs.• Must inject slowly.

Advantages

• Good for depot storage (if oil based) Rapid onset of Action. e.g vaccines, antibiotics.

Disadvantages• Pain at site of injection

11- Parenteral Routes

Intramuscular (IM)

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Use

•Suitable for large volume, irritating drugs.• Must inject slowly as a rule.• Complete bioavailability.• E.g Thiopentol, diazepam IV for quick effect

Advantages

• Non irritating small volumes Even slow absorption e,.g Adrenaline in local anesthetics.

Disadvantages• Pain, necrosis, • Absorption of solid pallets implanted under the skin occurs slowly over weeks or months, e.g Testosterone Insulin, adrenaline, heparin, vaccines inj. SC.

11- Parenteral Routes

Subcutaneous (SC)

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Immediate action in lungs Rapid delivery to blood Local or systemic action.*gaseous and volatile agents and aerosols rapid onset of action due to rapid access to circulation :a. large surface area .b. thin membranes separates alveoli from circulation . c. high blood flow.

111- Inhalation Routes

3-Inhalation route

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Advantages Instantaneous

absorptionUser can titrate (regulate the amount of drug they are receiving).  Avoids hepatic first-

pass loss. Local application at

the desired site of action in pulmonary disease.

Treatment of bronchial asthma.

Disadvantage

Must be in gas, vapor or aerosol form.

In exactly dose .

111- Inhalation Routes

3-Inhalation route

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Dr .safia A alrezami

• Topical medication is a medication that is applied to body surface  such as the skin  or Mucosal membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including but not limited to creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.•Mucosal membranes• (eye drops, antiseptic, sunscreen, callous removal, nasal) •Skin a. Dermal - rubbing in of oil or ointment (local action) b. Transdermal - absorption of drug through skin (systemic action)

i. stable blood levels . ii. no first pass metabolism . iii. drug must be potent or patch

becomes to large .

1v- Topical Routes 4 -Topical route

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Advantage

Convenient Effects are limited to area of application Localized.

Limited systemic absorption.

Disadvantage

Effects are limited to area of application.

Irritation .No exactly dose .

1v- Topical Routes

4-Topical route

Dr .safia A alrezami

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Other

Mucosal membranes

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Eye drops Ear drops Nasal drops

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Dr .safia A. alrezami

The end