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<ul><li> 1. Arminda Cultura</li></ul> <p> 2. Morphine was isolated from rawopium in 1805 by a Germanpharmacologist, Friedrich WilhelmAdam Serturner (1783-1841). Morphine is a potent suppressor ofpain and is a very useful drug inpainful conditions, especially in severechest pain arising due to heart attacks.It also induces sleep in no time 3. Barely eighteen years aftermorphine was discovered, it wasused for homicide. In 1823, a twenty-seven year oldFrench doctor, Edme Castaing,mixed morphine in the wine givento his friend, Auguste Ballet, to killhim.Edme Castaing 4. In fact the name morphine comesfrom the Greek god of dreams,Morpheus. Incidentally Morpheuswas the son of Hypnos, the Greekgod of sleep, and our wordhypnosis is derived from it. Hypnoswas also the brother of Thanatos, thegod of death. Morphine not only brings sleep anddreams but may cause death whentaken in large doses. Morpheus (TheGod Of Dreams) 5. Morphine is a natural opiumalkaloid It is a dried extract obtained fromthe capsules of the poppy plantknown as papaver somniferum It requires approximately 10 kg ofraw opium to produce 1 kg ofmorphine 6. A. According to ring structurea) Phenanthrene derivatives Morphine Thebaine Codeineb) Benzo-isoquinolinederivatives Papaverine Noscapine 7. B. According to synthesisa) Natural opium alkaloids Morphine Codeineb) Semi synthetic opium alkaloids Heroine Pholcodeinec) Synthetic opiods Pethidine Methadine 8. Methods of abuse Traditionally, morphinewas almost exclusively used by injection,but the variety of pharmaceutical formsthat it is marketed as today support its useby oral and other routes of administration. Forms include: oral solutions, immediate-andsustained-release tablets and capsules,suppositories, and injectable preparations.Those dependent on morphine preferinjection because the drug enters the bloodstream more quickly. 9. Parenterally as subcutaneous,intravenous, or epidural injections.When injected, particularlyintravenously, morphine produces anintense contraction sensation in themuscles due to histamine release andalso produces a very intense 'rush'which is mediated by several differentreceptors in the CNS. The militarysometimes issues morphine loaded inan auto injector 10. Orally, it comes as an elixir,concentrated solution, powder (forcompounding) or in tablet form.Morphine is rarely supplied insuppository form. Due to its poor oralbioavailability, oral morphine is onlyone-sixth to one-third of the potencyof parenteral morphine. Morphine isavailable in extended release capsulesfor chronic administration, as well asimmediate-release formulations. 11. LD50 = 461 mg/kg (rat, oral), 600 mg/kg(mouse, oral). Human lethal dose byingestion is 120-250 mg of morphinesulfate. In person not addicted to opium, 200mg ofmorphine, or its equivalent of opium 2gmis fatal 10ml of opium is regarded as dangerousdose The fatal dose of tincture of opium inchildren is 2-3 drops The usual fatal period is about 9-12 hours 12. Side effects include: cold clammy skin lowered blood pressure Sleepiness leading to stupor and coma slowed breathing slow pulse rate flaccid muscles fluid in the lungs "pinpoint" or dilated pupils, and possible death 13. Urine morphine measurement OrUrine morphine levelThis test measures the amount orpresence of morphine in urine.Morphine is a type of drug calledan opioid. This test is used todetect suspected or known abuse ofmorphine. 14. Interpretation of Urine TestResults: Positive morphine urine resultsgenerally indicate use within the last twoto three days, or longer after prolongeduse. Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in theurine is indicative of heroin use. Highconcentrations may indicate chronic use ofthe drug. It is important to hydrolyze urinespecimens to assess a urine morphineconcentration. 15. Morphine:</p>


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