- 1.Driving My Company G105 Enterprise Skills Problem 04:
Motivation 6th Presentation
2. Learning Objectives 1. Describe and compare the
contemporarytheories of motivation2. Apply the motivation theories
tostructure work and rewards to motivatestaff3. Explain how to
provide feedback andmodify behaviours through rewards andpunishment
3. Problem Analysis NoImprovementinPerformance!$500 bonus for
Harris theeveryone: EmployerSourcing; Sales;How? Admin 4. What Is
Motivation? Motivation Motivation is an internal process by which a
persons efforts areenergized, directed, and sustained towards
attaining a goal. may be intrinsic, extrinsic, or both.Intrinsic
MotivationExtrinsic Motivation Drives behaviour performed for
Drives behaviour performed for the sake of activity itself external
rewards or to avoid Comes from internal desirepunishment such as:
Comes from outside the person: interest salary and other tangibles
need for challenge intangible rewards such as personal satisfaction
praises from the boss 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
164Money is but one motivator. People are motivated by different
things. Harris needs to find out what works for his staff, beyond
monetary rewards. 5. Motivation Rewards and punishments are used by
organisations to motivate. Effectiveness of rewards varies
explained by motivation theories. Content Theories Process Theories
Reinforcement(focus on: Needs)(focus on: Cognitive
TheoriesProcess)(focus on: Consequences) Hierarchy of Needs
Expectancy Theory Operant Conditioning (Maslow)(Vroom) (Skinner)
2-Factor Theory Equity Theory (Adams) Organisation (Herzberg) Goal
Setting Theory Behaviour 3 Needs Theory(Locke) Modification
(Luthans (McClelland)& Kreitner) 6. Limitations &
Assumptions Whenever we apply motivation theories, we have to keep
in mind the following limitations & assumptions: 1.Motivation
theories assume that we know what motivates other people, and what
their needs, wants, priorities, and values are (which in reality is
not true) 2.Motivation is a very complex issue involving many
factors:i.A motivator that works for one person may not work
foranother ;ii. What works for a person at one point in time may
notwork in the future; &iii. No single motivator is likely to
work on its own. 7. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Lower level needs
must be satisfied first before higher level needs are activated.
Satisfied needs cease to motivate. the money may cater tolower
level needs that no longer motivateHarris employees Unsatisfied
needs can cause frustration/stress lower needs take precedence. 8.
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory To motivate staff, Harris focus should
be on the increasing motivators while maintaining adequacy in the
hygiene factors.Hygiene FactorsMotivating Factors inadequacy
results in frustration source of motivation and lack of motivation
intrinsic factors / content of work beyond adequacy, does not e.g.
differentiate the bonus amount = motivateachievement &
recognition of good extrinsic factors / context of work performance
e.g. flat $500 9. McClellands Three Acquired Needs Theory David
McClellands research indicates that individuals are motivated based
on three major needs: To motivate his staff, Harris must understand
what needs his employees are motivated by and structure work,
assign roles, provide rewards, and behave accordingly to meet those
needs.nAch nPow nAff The drive to excel, to The need to make The
desire for achieve a set of others behave in a friendly & close
standards, to strive way they would not interpersonal to succeed
have behaved relationships E.g. otherwise E.g. Set stretch goals
E.g. Praise, lunch together Provide timely Give titles & assign
Show care & concern performance feedback leadership roles
Listen to feedback 10. Expectancy TheoryOutcome / EffortPerformance
RewardP to O Expectancy(Instrumentality) E to P
Expectancylikelihood of being rewarded Valence(Expectancy)for
performance preference for belief that effort will Reward influence
performanceNot effective as $500 is givenpositivelyregardless of
performance Is $500Could differentiate amount attractive?Provide
periodic to strengthen instrumentality Differentiatefeedback to
strengthenby relating it to performance-amount toexpectancyrelated
goals or criteria (e.g. improve valencesales targets, cost
reduction,on time billing) Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence
must be high to motivate staff to work towards the reward 11.
Equity Theory Most highly-motivated employees are those who
perceive their rewards are equal to their
contributions.Differentiate bonus amountso that those who
workharder & perform better arebetter compensated Individuals
outcomes relational partners outcomes Individuals own
inputsrelational partners inputs Ensure employees compensation are
in line with industrys When people feel fairly treated, they are
more likely to be motivated; when they feel unfairly treated, they
will be easily de-motivated 12. Goal Setting Theory Harris would
have to ensure that each element of the goal-setting theory must be
present to motivate staff. Goal Organisational Intrinsic Acceptance
Support RewardsS.M.A.R.TGoal Directed PerformanceSatisfaction Goals
Effort GoalIndividual Traits Extrinsic Commitment&
AbilitiesRewards Put in more effort to discuss & set Spend time
to provide feedback; goals with staff Make sure staff are confident
of own abilities;provide training if necessary. 13. Reinforcement
TheoriesConsequences Behavioursof Behaviour Desired +ve
reinforcement Org Behaviours-ve reinforcementAntecedents Undesired
Extinction Org Behaviours PunishmentSet out the expectations
clearly Map out the consequences of their behaviours to his staff
14. OB Mod Four Alternative
differentiate the Managers Usebonus amounts -ve Consequence
Consequence +ve ExtinctionNegative e.g. remove bonus
Reinforcementfor those who have not been performingWithdrawal 15.
Operant Conditioning A behaviour is a function of its consequence.
A behaviour that is reinforced/rewarded will be repeated &
vice-versa. Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed Interval Continuous
Partial Variable Interval Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio most effective
for steady & long-term change * Dont just depend on year-end
bonus * Time rewards to followimmediately after performance 16.
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 2007 Prentice Hall,
Inc. All rights reserved. 17. Harris can 1. Set the right
expectations (behaviours, performance goals, and rewards). 2.
Understand the different needs of his staff and provide rewards
that satisfy thoseneeds or are valued by your staff. 3. Focus on
the motivators to encourage staff to perform better provide
growthopportunity, recognition, etc. Be creative in coming up with
motivators. 4. Set goals, together with his staff, that are
attainable if the staff puts in the effortand ensure that the link
between performance and rewards is clear. 5. Be equitable - fair
compared to other companies selling OEM computer parts,
&between high performers and mediocre performers within his
company (e.g. topsalesman vs purchaser who just reissues purchase
contracts without review). 6. Time rewards to follow immediately
after performance but use a variable ratioschedule. 7.
Differentiate rewards between high performers, mediocre performers,
and poorperformers, so that high performers are rewarded and those
who arent arepunished or at least not rewarded. 8. Make sure that
the motivators and processes he put in place to motivate his
staffare aligned and do not work against one another. 18.
Conclusion Rewards and punishments are used to motivate staff but
their effectiveness varies. The motivation theories explain why
some are motivated while others are not.Using the theories, Harris
can:structure his rewards based on the needs of the staff. ensure
all elements that influence how the staff view the rewards have
been considered in structuring the rewards. reinforce the right
behaviours of the staff. 19. EXTENDED LEARNING 20. Expectancy
TheoryOutcome /Effort Performance Reward E to P Expectancy
(Expectancy)belief that effort willinfluence performancePositively
Expectancy (E to P Expectancy) is the belief that increased effort
will lead to increased performance i.e. if I work harder then this
will be better. This is affected by such things as: Having the
right resources available (e.g. raw materials, time) Having the
right skills to do the job Having the necessary support to get the
job done (e.g. supervisor support,or correct information on the
job) 21. Expectancy TheoryOutcome /EffortPerformance RewardP to O
Expectancy(Instrumentality) likelihood of being rewarded for
performance Instrumentality (P to O Expectancy) is the belief that
if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received i.e. if
I do a good job, there is something in it for me. This is affected
by such things as: Clear understanding of the relationship between
performance and outcomes e.g. the rules of the reward game Trust in
the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome
Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome 22.
Expectancy TheoryOutcome / EffortPerformance
RewardValencepreference for Reward Valence (Outcome) is the
importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome.
For example, if I am mainly motivated by money, I might not value
offers of additional time off. 23. Expectancy TheoryOutcome
/EffortPerformance Reward E to P Expectancy (Expectancy)P to O
Expectancy (Instrumentality)Valencebelief that effort
willlikelihood of being rewarded preference forinfluence
performancefor performance RewardPositively Individuals change
their level of effort according to the value they place on the
outcomes they receive from the process and on their perception of
the strength of the links between effort and outcome. So, if I
perceive that any one of these is true: My increased effort will
not increase my performance; My increased performance will not
increase my rewards; or I dont value the rewards on offer...then
Expectancy theory suggests that I will not be motivated. This means
that even if an organisation achieves two out of three, that
employees would still not be motivated; all three are required for
positive motivation. Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence must
be high to motivate staff to work towards the reward. 24. Goal
Setting Theory Goal setting theory assumes behavior results from a
persons conscious goals and intentions. Goal setting is motivating
if the goals are Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic and
Time Bound. Research suggests that specific challenging goals have
been shown to lead to high performance only if people accept and
are committed to the goal. The resulting goal-directed effort turns
into performance when the individual has the abilities to do the
job and there are sufficient resources and support from the
organisation. The satisfaction that the individual gets is based on
his performance as well as his level of abilities (how hard he had
to try) and his satisfaction with the support from the
organisation. His satisfaction can be from intrinsic or extrinsic
rewards. 25. Goal Setting Theory In order to generate high
performance,1. Goals should be specific, rather than vague.2.
Feedback should be provided (especially workers giving feedback on
their own outputs).3. The individuals should be committed to the
goals.4. The individuals should believe in their own ability to
accomplish the goals. 26. Operant Conditioning Schedules of
Reinforcement:Fixed IntervalPartial Continuous
VariableIntervalFixed RatioVariableRatio Continuous reinforcement
means that the behavior is followed by a consequence each time it
occurs. Intermittent schedules are based either on the passage of
time (interval schedules) or the number of correct responses
emitted (ratio schedules). 27. Operant Conditioning The consequence
can be deliveredbased on the same amount ofpassage of time or the
samenumber of correct responses(fixed) or it could be based on
aslightly different amount oftime or number of correctresponses
that vary around aparticular number (variable).Interval - refers to
time period This results in an four classes of Ratio refers to no.
of correct responses intermittent schedules. Note: Continuous
reinforcement is actually a specific example of a fixed
ratioschedule with only one response emitted before a consequence
occurs. 28. Operant Conditioning Fixed interval -- the first
correct response after aset amount of time has passed is
reinforced. Thetime period required is always the same. Variable
interval -- the first correct responseafter a set amount of time
has passed is reinforced.After the reinforcement, a new time period
(shorteror longer) is set with the average equaling aspecific
number over a sum total of trials Fixed ratio -- a reinforcer is
given after a specified Interval - refers to time period number of
correct responses. This schedule is best Ratio refers to no. of
correct responsesfor learning a new behavior Note: Continuous
reinforcement is Variable ratio -- a reinforcer is given after a
set actually a specific example of anumber of correct responses.
After reinforcement fixed ratio schedule with only onethe number of
correct responses necessary for response emitted before
areinforcement changes. This schedule is best for consequence
occurs.maintaining behavior. 29. References Textbooks 1. McShane S.
L. and Von Glinow M. A. (2009) Organizational Behavior: Essentials,
2nd ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2. Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. (2001)
Organizational Behaviour: An introductory text, 4th ed. Essex:
FinancialTimes/Prentice Hall. 3. Ivancevich, J. M. and Matteson, M.
R. (2002) Organizational Behaviour and Management, 6th ed.
McGraw-Hill. 4. Miner, J. B. (2005) Organizational Behavior I:
Essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: M.E.
Sharpe, Inc. 5. Newstrom, J. W. (2007) Organizational Behavior:
Human behaviour at work, 12th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 6. Robbins, S.
P. (2001) Organizational Behavior, 9th ed. Prentice-Hall
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http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/ Retrieved on 12 Apr 2010. 3.
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Theory and Behavioural Psychology.
12 Apr 2010. 6. The 2 Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory.
Retrieved on 12 Apr2010. 7. Two-Factor Theory.
Retrieved on 12 Apr2010. 8. David McClellands Motivational Needs
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on 12 Apr 2010.