By Dr. ANUGOM Emeka.

Deep venous thrombosis

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Page 1: Deep venous thrombosis

By Dr. ANUGOM Emeka.

Page 2: Deep venous thrombosis

This is formation of blood clots in a deep leg vein which usually runs through the calf and thigh muscles (not visible under the skin)

These powerful muscles normally push blood back to the heart by contracting

If it occurs in the superficial veins

under the skin its called superficial thrombophlebitis, which is less serious but can cross over to the deep veins and cause deep venous thrombosis.


Page 3: Deep venous thrombosis

They usually resolve gradually, but the serious complications comprise:

1. Pulmonary Embolism: This can be fatal and arises

from dislodged clot from the leg veins through the large heart veins to get stuck in a blood vessel leading to a lung.

2. Post-Thrombotic Syndrome: Persistent Discomfort and Calf



Page 4: Deep venous thrombosis

1. Pain and tenderness

over the Calf 2. Calf Swelling

3. Colour and temperature

changes of the calf The blood is diverted to

other non-blocked veins, making it warm and red)

4. May be Asymptomatic Thus only noted following



Page 5: Deep venous thrombosis

IMMOBILITY: (reduced blood flow) - Surgery lasting over 30 minutes - Any illness/injury causing

immobility - Long journey(over 4 hours) by

plane, train etc

DAMAGE TO INSIDE LINING OF VEINS: Vasculitis or some chemotherapy drugs.

CONTRACEPTIVE PILL & HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY: Estrogen content may cause blood to clot easier than usual



Page 6: Deep venous thrombosis


EASIER THAN USUAL (Thrombophila): Conditions like Nephrotic syndrome, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Inherited conditions like factor V Leiden


OLDER PEOPLE: Especially with poor mobility or illnesses like cancer



Page 7: Deep venous thrombosis

This arises from long journeys (more

than 4 hours). Though rare with 1 case in 6000 journey of over 4 hrs. precaution is important especially if you’re in the At-Risk group.

CAUSES Immobile and cramped for long

periods Reduced cabin pressure Reduced oxygen level in the plane Slight dehydration from not drinking

much water and taking too many alcoholic beverages.


Page 8: Deep venous thrombosis

1. Exercise calf and foot regularly - Every 30mins bend & straighten

your legs, feet & toes wherever you’re seated.

- Press the balls of your feet firmly on the floor or foot-rest regularly to increase blood flow in the legs

- If permitted disembark from the plane and have a stroll while its refueling

- Use leg exerciser for travels if available.

2. Drink Plenty of water (Avoid dehydration)


Page 9: Deep venous thrombosis

Do not drink too much alcohol

(this can lead to dehydration and immobility)

Do not take sleeping pills (Can cause immobility)

Use Compression stockings

Take anticoagulant medication (If at high risk) e.g. Heparin injection

N:B Aspirin isn’t used to prevent DVT (its rather more effective in preventing clots in arteries that can cause stroke or heart attack, rather than clots in veins.


Page 10: Deep venous thrombosis

Past history of DVT or Pulmonary


Family history of clotting disorders

Cancer Patient or having had treatment for cancer in the past

Any major surgeries in the last 3 months like hip or knee replacement (long haul flight not advised for this class of people)

Past history of Stroke 10

Page 11: Deep venous thrombosis

Have a little walk to get the

circulation moving.

N:B Slight painless puffiness of feet and ankle is a common occurrence after a long journey and is not due to DVT.


Page 12: Deep venous thrombosis


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