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Clinical Practice Guidelines : Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)-2013 Presented by: Khairunnisa Zamri

CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

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Page 1: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Clinical Practice Guidelines:

Prevention and Treatment of

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)-2013

Presented by: Khairunnisa Zamri

Page 2: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

OUTLINE 1. Definition

2. Epidemiology and prognosis

3. Pathophysiology

4. Causes of VTE

5. Methods of Prophylaxis

6. Risk assessment of VTE

7. Risk assessment for bleeding

8. Timing and initiation of prophylaxis

9. Duration of prophylaxis

10. DVT in stroke

11. Treatment and maintenance of VTE

12. Duration of anticoagulant

13. References

Page 3: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

What is VTE?

Venous thromboembolism comprises:

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

pulmonary embolism (PE)

Three major pathophysiologic determinants of VTE

proposed by Virchow:

venous stasis

endothelial injury

hypercoagulability

1 CPG on Prevention and Treatment of VTE (2013)

Page 4: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

major health problem-3rd most common cardiovascular

disease after MI and stroke 2

overall VTE rates are 100 per 100,000 population per

year, of which 70% are hospital acquired 3

Hospital acquired VTE in Asia is increasing-immobilisation,

active cancer, infections, advancing age, heart diseases and

major surgeries

Obstetric VTE is now the leading cause of maternal death

in Malaysia: increasing maternal age, obesity, rising trend

for caesarean deliveries, multiple pregnancies and low

rate for thromboprophylaxis

2 Naess et al. (2007)

3 Anderson et al. (1991)

Page 5: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Page 6: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
Page 7: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Methods of Prophylaxis

1) Mechanical Prophylaxis

Graded Elastic Compression Stockings (GECS),

Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC) of the calf or thigh

Venous Foot Pump (VFP)

2) Pharmacological Prophylaxis

low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)

Pentasaccharide sodium (fondaparinux)

unfractionated heparin (UFH)

Vitamin K antagonist

New oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban).

Page 8: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) Fondaparinux

standard first line

thromboprophylactic agents (cost-effectiveness)

•synthetic pentasaccharide sodium that

selectively binds to

antithrombin, inducing a conformational change

that increases antifactor

Xa without inhibiting thrombin

LMWH is more effective than UFH in

preventing thrombosis without increasing the risk of

bleeding.

•predictable pharmacokinetic

• t1/2: 17-21 hours

•OD dosing

•used as an alternative to LMWH.

• It is licensed for use outside pregnancy.

•prophylactic dose is 2.5 mg given no

earlier than 6 to 8 hours after surgery

less likely to produce haematomas at injection site,

heparin induced

thrombocytopenia/ thrombosis (HITT) and

osteoporosis than UFH

•eliminated unchanged in

Urine

•elimination is prolonged in patients aged

>75 years and in those weighing <50kg.

Page 9: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Unfractionated Heparin Vitamin K Antagonist

no longer the preferred first line agent as it

requires complex labor intensive

administration, monitoring and dose

adjustment

Major bleeding events, risk of HITT

VTE prophylaxis with warfarin can be

commenced :

•Preoperatively (risk of major

bleeding event),

•at the time of surgery

•at the early postoperative

period

s/c low dose UFH administered in a dose of

5000 IU every 12 hours after the surgery

reduces the rate of VTE in patients undergoing

a moderate risk surgery

advantages are its ease of oral administration

and low cost.

disadvantages

•delayed onset on action

•narrow therapeutic range

•Drug -drug interaction

•requirement for daily monitoring of the INR

(2.0 to 2.5 in orthopaedic surgery).

dose in elective hip surgery 3500 IU

8hourly- starting

two days before surgery and adjusting the dose

to maintain the activated partial

thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio in the upper

normal range

reserved for patients who have

contraindications to the alternative agents

Page 10: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Dabigatran Rivaroxaban Apixaban

alternative to LMWH and

fondaparinux for the

prevention of VTE following

THR and TKR surgeries

has a rapid onset of action

by reaching peak

concentration at 3

hours.

F: 60 to 80% after oral

administration.

M: via CYP3A4

E: renal and fecal/ biliary

routes. (t1/2: 5 to 9 hours)

A small MW agent

F: 50 to 85% after oral

intake

reaches peak concentration

at 3 hours

E: predominantly via the

biliary tract.

dose :110 mg given 1 to 4

hours postoperatively

and continued with 220 mg

daily x 10 days after knee

replacement and for 35 days

after hip replacement.

For patients with

moderate renal impairment

and age >75 years, starting

dose 75mg and 150 mg

continuing dose once daily is

recommended

produces pharmacologic

effects that persist for 24

Hours- OD dosing

has predictable

pharmacokinetics and does

not require monitoring

Dose:10 mg orally OD

with or without food and

the initial dose should

be taken at least 6 to 10

hours after surgery once

haemostasis has been

established

2.5 mg orally BD

The initial dose should be

taken 12

to 24 hours after surgery.

safe to be used in patients

with renal impairment.

Page 11: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR VTE

The Padua Prediction Score (PPS) is the best available

validated prediction for VTE risk in medical patients

low risk patients have 0.3% rate of developing

symptomatic VTE in 90 days

high risk patients have 11% rate of developing VTE within

90 days

The PPS should not be applied to critically ill patients.

Page 12: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
Page 13: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
Page 14: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
Page 15: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
Page 16: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Timing and Initiation of Prophylaxis

Page 17: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Duration of prophylaxis

Page 18: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

DVT in Stroke

immobility remains an important risk factor for the

development of VTE in stroke patients.

Risk factors: advanced age, dehydration and the severity

of paralysis

Patients with hemiplegia may develop DVT in up to 60 to

70% of cases, if DVT prophylaxis is not prescribed within

7 to 10 days

DVT prophylaxis is recommended as one of the nine key

performance indicators (KPI) in stroke management

LMWH or subcutaneous UFH 5000 IU BD in reducing

the incidence of DVT

Page 19: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Clinical diagnosis

Page 20: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Treatment of VTE

Low molecular weight heparin

a/w mortality, recurrence of VTE and incidence of

major bleeding when compared with unfractionated

heparin.

It does not require monitoring and makes outpatient

treatment feasible.

Page 21: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Fondaparinux

an indirect inhibitor of activated factor X- does not inhibit thrombin and

has no effect on platelets.

given subcutaneously and the dosing for the treatment of VTE is based on

the body weight.

must be used with caution in patients with renal impairment as it is

eliminated unchanged in the kidneys.

continued for at least 5 days or until the INR is above 2 for at least 24

hours, whichever is longer.

Page 22: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Rivaroxaban

a highly selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor that is orally active with a rapid

onset of action.

Dose:15 mg BD,as the loading dose for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg OD.

At these doses, it has been shown to be noninferior to enoxaparin

followed by warfarin with significantly less major bleeding complications

Switching heparin to rivaroxaban Switching rivaroxaban to heparin

For patients currently receiving a

parenteral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban

should be started 0 to 2 hours before

the time of the next scheduled

administration of LMWH or at the time

of discontinuation of continuous

intravenous unfractionated heparin.

To convert rivaroxaban to LMWH,

give the first dose of LMWH at the time

the next rivaroxaban dose would be

taken or 12 hours after the last dose of

rivaroxaban

Page 23: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Switching VKA to rivaroxaban Switching rivaroxaban to VKA

Stop VKA and allow INR to fall.

Rivaroxaban can be given as soon as

INR ≤ 2.5

There is a potential for inadequate

anticoagulation during the transition from

rivaroxaban to VKA.

Noted: rivaroxaban can contribute to

an elevated INR.

VKA should be given concurrently until

INR ≥ 2.0

First 2 days, dosing of VKA should be

used followed by VKA dosing guided by

INR testing.

While patients are on both rivaroxaban

and VKA, the INR should not be tested

earlier than 24 hours after the previous

dose but prior to the next dose of

rivaroxaban.

Once rivaroxaban is discontinued, INR

testing may be done reliably at least 24

hours after the last dose Dabigatran

At the time of writing this cpg, dabigatran is not licensed for use in the treatment of

VTE.

Page 24: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Intravenous unfractionated heparin

•no longer the standard treatment in DVT and PE because it has to be

given as an infusion with frequent APTT monitoring

•may take more than 12 hours to achieve therapeutic level.

•All patients receiving UFH should have a platelet count performed at

baseline but do not necessitate platelet count monitoring unless

postoperative

Page 25: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Maintenance treatment of VTE

Maintenance of anticoagulation with oral anticoagulants is

recommended.

Following discharge, those on warfarin should be followed

up within a week with a repeat INR.

If the INR remains within therapeutic range, the same

dose is maintained and the next follow up will be 2 weeks

later.

If the INR still remains within therapeutic range, then

monthly follow up with INR is advised.

More frequent visits are required if therapeutic INR is not

achieved

Page 26: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Duration of anticoagulation

The aim of anticoagulant therapy is to prevent extension of

the thrombus and recurrence of the disease; however, the

optimal duration is still not known.

Anticoagulant therapy should be continued until the reduction

of recurrent VTE no longer outweighs the increase risk of

bleeding

Page 27: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Reference 1. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (2013)

Page 28: CPG: Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

Thank you