NUTRITION- AN INEVITABLE LINK WITH DEPRESSION PRESENTED BY. PUSHPA DHAMI M.SC FOODS AND NUTRITION ANGRAU, Hyderabad
Yet to see. Introduction Prevalence of depression Symptoms, Causes, Factors, Types of depression Link between Nutrition, Neurotransmitters and Depression Role of amino acids Role of carbohydrates, protein and fat Role of vitamin and minerals Probiotics and depression Alcohol and depression Caffiene and depression Exercise, Sleep and depression Natural herbs and depression Antidepressants and Depression Conclusion Tips to follow References
Introduction The General definition of Depression is a psychological disorder that affects a person's mood changes, physical functions and social interactions. Depression is a common mental disorder that causes people to experience depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration.
Prevalence The World Health Organization has ranked depression on the 4th place of causes of diseases worldwide. Until 2020, depression will, together with myocardial infarction, be the main cause of disability (WHO Health Report 2006). One in seven people (15 per cent) in high-income countries One in nine (11 per cent) in middle- and low-income countries are likely to get depression over their lifetime. Prevalence of major depressive disorder has been estimated to be 2% of children and 4-8% of adolescents .
Depression affects over 120 million people worldwide. It can interfere with a person's ability to work, make relationships difficult, and destroy quality of life. In severe cases it leads to suicide, causing 850,000 deaths a year. A study based on the World Health Organizations World Mental Health Survey Initiative has said that India has the highest rate of major depression (36%) in the world. The global study, based on interviews with 89,000 people, shows that women are twice as likely to suffer depression as men. Unemployed tend to have higher rates of depression (almost 13 percent) than those who are employed full time (7 percent).
Causes of depression Acc. To (CARMHA) Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction (2009)
Factors contributes to depression 1. Genetic factors- The genetic risk of developing clinical depression is about 40% if a biological parent has been diagnosed with the illness, with the remaining 60% being due to factors within the individuals own environment. 2. Biochemical factors- Three important neurotransmitters that affect a persons mood are serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. 3. Physical illness- Compromised immune functioning 4. Gender - studies have shown that there is a much greater likelihood of women developing non-melancholic depression than men. 5. Ageing brain 6. Stress Fact sheet( Oct 2012)
Types of depression 1. Mild depression It has a limited negative effect on ones daily life. For eg. difficulty concentrating at work or motivating yourself to do the things you normally enjoy. 2. Major depression Interferes with an individuals daily life - with eating, sleeping and other everyday activities. Some people may experience only one episode but it is more common to experience several episodes in a lifetime. 3. Dysthymic disorder, or dysthymia, Characterized by long-term (2 years or longer). Symptoms are not be severe enough to disable a person but can prevent normal functioning or feeling of well being. According to NIMH( National institute of Mental Health)
4. Bi-polar disorder Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changesfrom extreme highs (e.g., mania) to extreme lows (e.g., depression). 5. Post-natal depression Many new mothers experience what are sometimes called 'baby blues' a few days after the birth. Mothers feeling completely overwhelmed, inadequate and unable to cope. Also experience negative feelings towards their child. It affects one in ten mothers and usually begins two to three weeks after the birth. 6. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Sometimes called winter blues. SAD can make the sufferer feel anxious, stressed and depressed. It may interfere with their moods and with their sleeping and eating patterns. According to NIMH( National institute of Mental Health)
Different Occupations and Depression Occupations with both high demand and low control over daily tasks are known to cause stress. Jobs with long hours or shift work, which comes with irregular sleep schedules, can be problematic for people with depression. Lawyers, Judges, or Police officers, are exposed to the worst human behavior; these negative experiences can alter your perspective on the world and the people may prone to depression. According to statistics from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the jobs with the lowest rates of depression included engineering, architecture, and the sciences (for both men and women).
2007 (SAMHSA), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The type of jobs people hold can also influence the likelihood that they will become depressed. Profession Rate of depression (%) Personal Care and Service 10.8 Community and Social Services 9.6 Health Care Practitioners and Technical 9.4 Education, Training and Library 8.7 Custodial, Gardening and Maintenance 7.3 Sales and Related 6.7 Legal 6.4 Protective Service 4.8 Installation, Maintenance and Repair 4.4
Depression is primarily psychological, and best dealt with by counselling. Depression as a biochemical phenomenon, best dealt with by antidepressant medication. There is a third aspect to the onset and treatment of depression. Nutrition.
Nutrition Nutrition plays a key role in the onset, severity, and duration of depression, including daily mood swings. Common imbalances connected to nutrition that worsen ones mood and motivation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Blood sugar imbalances (often associated with excessive sugar and stimulant intake) Lack of amino acids (tryptophan and tyrosine are precursors of serotonin and noradrenaline) Lack of B vitamins (vitamin B6, folate, B12) Lack of essential fats (omega-3)
Neurotransmitters The most prevalent biochemical theory for the cause of these imbalances is a brain imbalance in two families of neurotransmitters. These are: 1. Serotonin, thought to primarily influence mood 2. Dopamine,noradrenaline,and adrenaline, thought to primarily influence motivation (Primary Care Mental Health (2003),Radcliffe Medical Press)
Nutrition, Neurotransmission and Depression Neurotransmission plays a role in mood. Important neurotransmitters (NT's) such as 1. Serotonin (Ser), 2. Dopamine (DA), 3. Norepinephrine (NE), 4. Acetylcholine (Ach), and 5. Glutamate (Glu). Nutrients required for synthesis of NT's includes Amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine), Minerals (zinc, copper, iron, magnesium), a nd B-vitamins (B6, B12, folic acid).
Patrick Holford. (2003) and TS Sathyanarayana Rao et.al, (2008)
S-adenosine methionine SAMe is a methyl donor and is involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters in the brain. Derived from the amino acid L-methionine through a metabolic pathway called the one-carbon cycle, SAMe has been postulated to have antidepressant properties. Over 100 placebo-controlled, double-blind studies have shown that SAMe (2001600 mg/d) is equal to or superior to antidepressants, works faster, most often within a few days (most pharmaceutical antidepressants may take three to six weeks to take effect) and with few side effects. Limitation- Very expensive and very unstable. An alternative that is much more stable and less costly is tri-methyl-glycine (TMG). David Mischoulon and Maurizio Fava (Am J Clin Nutr 2002)
Methyl tetrahydrofolat e reductase Patrick Holford. (2003) and TS Sathyanarayana Rao et.al, (2008) Tri methyl glycine
Role of amino Acids
Tryptophan- reduces depression A study was conducted with hypothesis that what would happen if you deprived people of tryptophan. They gave 15 volunteers who had a history of depression, but were currently not depressed, a nutritionally balanced drink that excluded tryptophan. Within seven hours, 10 out of 15 noticed a worsening of their mood and started to show signs of depression. On being given the same drink, but this time with tryptophan added, their mood improved. Supplementing the amino acid tryptophan is already proven to improve mood.
5-HTP- how it reduces depression The first study proving the moodboosting power of 5-HTP was do