Final Exam Review Fall 2014

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Final exam review Nutrition HO-15

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  • 1. FINAL REVIEWIntro to Nutrition73 questions, 200 pointsMultiple choice true / false & matching2.75 hours to take the exam

2. Essential A necessary nutrient that can beobtained only from the dietVitamins MineralsWater CarbohydratesLipids Protein 3. Nutrient Density A high proportion of micronutrientsand fiber with a low proportion ofcalories, saturated fat and sugar 4. Energy Yielding NutrientsProteinFatCarbohydrate 5. Energy Yielding NutrientsProtein4 cal/gFat9 cal/gCarbohydrate4 cal/g 6. Leading Causes of Deathdiabetesheartdiseasecancer stroke 7. Whole Foodswhole fruits,vegetables,grains, grassfed meats,eggsRefinedcarbohydrates,processed oils,packagedproducts 8. DRIFAT: 20-35% total calories SATURATED FAT: < 10% of total calories AHA < 7% TRANS FAT: as low as possible ( cellself-destructs 76. PregnancyUnderweightInfantMost potentindicatorInfantsFutureHealth 77. PregnancyMother isOverweightInfant isOverweightGreaterchance ofNTDs 78. PregnancyMother isOverweightgreater risk formother ofHypertension,DM, druginduced labor,C-section 79. Preparing for PregnancyLow Birth WeightLower IQShort Stature40X more likelyto die 1st year 80. Preparing for PregnancyHigh Birth WeightLarger size2X more likelyto have NTD 81. NonpregnantPregnantLactatingFolate100%Supplementation is recommended for prevention400 ug of folic acid daily 82. FolatedeficiencyAbnormalspinal corddevelopmentNeural TubeDefect 83. NonpregnantPregnantLactatingCalcium100% 84. Calcium AbsorptionDoublesDuring Pregnancy 85. NonpregnantPregnantLactatingIron100%Iron supplementation is recommendedduring pregnancy 86. Fetus needs a store of iron for the first3-6 months of lifeIron supplementation isrecommended during pregnancy 87. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROMEIrreversible brain damageGrowth retardationMental retardationFacial abnormalitiesVision abnormalitiesImage by Kimery Davis on FlickrCC 88. Features of Fetal AlcoholSyndromeFetal Alcohol Syndrome is themost common cause ofpreventable mental retardationin the world. 89. CarbohydrateLactoseEasy todigestEnhanceCaabsorptionLipidsMainenergysourceEFAsProteinEasilydigestedLactoferrin- ironImage from WikipediaBreastmilk 90. VitaminsVitamin CHighVitamin DLowMineralsCa highlyabsorbableLow insodiumHigh in zincand ironImage from Wikipedia 91. Immune FactorsAnti-viral agentsAnti-bacterial agentsLess prone to GI disordersColostrum containsantibodiesImage from Wikipedia 92. Immune FactorsBreastfed babies are less prone todevelop stomach and intestinal disordersduring the first few months of lifeImage from Wikipedia 93. Vitamin D is low in breast milkVitamin DsupplementationrecommendedLess sunexposureMore sunscreenMore clothesMore need for vitamin D 94. CRAVINGSNot aPickles & Icecream? physiologic needHormoneinducedChanges intaste and smell 95. Increaseblood sugarin motherLargerbabiesIncreasedinsulin &blood sugarin infantIncreaserisk ofchildhoodobesityEuropean Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Vol. 183, Dec 2014. 96. maternaljunk fooddietfoodaddictionlater inlifeLaboratory rat from WikipediaThe FASEB. Journal vol. 27 no. 3 1275-1284. March 2012. 97. Image by ozgurmulazimoglu from WikipediaCommonsNursing Bottle SyndromeProlonged sucking on a bottleSevere tooth decayAvoid feeding juice and soda toinfants 98. Diet changes the most during the 2nd year oflife. Transitioning from an infant to a toddler. 99. ProteinToddlerNutrientNeedsCarbsFiberFattyacidsMineralsVitamins 100. FoodAllergyRecognizedas foreignImmuneresponseFoodIntoleranceNot anallergyUnpleasantsymptomFoodAversionIntensedislikeGrow out 101. Too Little Too much 102. Protein Recommendation stays the sameFiber Same: adequate amounts are important!Fat AHA dietVitamin A absorption increases with age! Recommendation decreasesVitamin D Recommendation increasesWater Same: adequate hydration important!Iron - iron status improves Recommendation decreases Calcium Recommendation increases absorption decreases 103. Physical Activity in ElderlyPhysical ActivityAllows for consumptionof more nutrientsDecreases mentallossesIncreases physicalstrength independenceGain independence 104. 48 million cases of foodborne illness3,000 deaths annuallyE Coli Not all E coli are dangerous Lives in our intestines withabout 500 other bacteria Infections with 0157:H7 can befatal Bloody diarrhea, intestinalcramping, dehydration 105. Food SafetyBacteria grow at 40 - 140 degreesWash dishes with warm soapy water and rinse at 140 degrees, airdry or with rinse with dilute bleach or use dishwasherFood should be put away or thrown away after 2 hoursWash hands with warm soapy waterRinse fruit and vegetables for 30 secondsDont wipe counters with same sponge you cleaned dishes with 106. Preserving FoodsFreezing At 0 degrees minimal nutrient lossesCanning Some nutrient losses Protects from most microbial growthDrying Commercial drying eliminates spoilage and helpsprevent nutrient losses Home drying may result in some nutrient losses 107. Natural and Artificial FlavorsCitromax Flavors 108. PesticidesControl insects, weeds,diseases4.5 billion lbs ofpesticides/yearLinked with birthdefects, tumors inanimalsOrganisms canbecome more resistant! 109. Pros Cons25% of organicshave pesticidesHigh costNot nutritionalsuperiorMinimizepesticideexposureLimits pesticideresistanceBenefitsenvironment 110. GMOProsGMOCons 111. THE END