Data related to human and economic losses from disasters that have occurred between 1980 and 2010. Natural Disasters from 1980 - 2010 Overview No of events: 94 No of people killed: 21,002 Average killed per year: 677 No of people affected: 6,306,441 Average affected per year: 203,434 Economic Damage (US$ X 1,000): 188,025 Economic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000): 6,065
Drought: 0.03 Earthquake*: ... Epidemic: 1.58 Extreme temp: 0.06 Flood: 1.13 Insect infestation: 0.06 Mass mov. dry: ... Mass mov. wet: 0.10 Volcano: ... Storm: 0.06 Wildfire: ... Average Disaster Per Year
Disaster Date Cost (US$ X 1,000) Drought 1983 71,103 Flood 1994 66,500 Flood 2010 30,000 Flood 1985 8,000 Flood 2000 4,805 Flood 2001 3,000 Flood 2003 2,570 Flood 2000 1,900 Flood 2005 147 Epidemic 1986 0 Source of data from slide 3-7: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, Universit catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Bel." Data version: v11.08
The rainy season (2012) in Nigeria has delivered more precipitation than earlier years, causing flooding in 18 of 38 states. The excessive water run-off was initially contained through contingency measures, but the heavy rain in 2012 had led to the overflow of water reservoirs, forced release of dam water and breaching of river boundaries and banks, resulting in damage to roads, bridges and other infrastructure, loss of property and livestock and displacement of people. The floods affected over 134,371 people, displaced 64,473 people, injured 202 and killed 148 people. The displaced population resorted to residing with host families or in makeshift camps.
The pictures presents a clear view of the countrys poor drainage and waste management system which exposes its citizen and the country as a whole to a variety of risks ranging from health (individual) risk to systematic risks.
The role of the interlinked components of risk management cannot be overemphasized. Knowledge helps to understand shocks, internal conditions, and potential outcomes, thus reducing uncertainty. Protection helps to reduce the probability and size of losses and increase those of benefits. Insurance is the transfer of resources across people and over time, from good to bad states of nature. Coping on the other hand is to recover from losses and make the most of benefits. In contrast, when preparation is limited, or a shock is unexpectedly large, coping can be haphazard and require costly measures leaving few resources for future risk, worsening vulnerability to shocks, and weakening the household's ability to undertake new opportunities.
The major factors impeding effective risk management as regards flood in Nigeria lies both on individuals and the governments path. On the individuals path is the lack of resources, lack of information and cognitive failures i.e. majority of homeowners in flood-prone areas are unaware of the risk of flood, and also behavioral failures suggesting that in many cases, individuals seem to have short memories regarding origins of, or prior crisis of various sort. On the other hand is the failures on the path of the government. These could stem from capture of interest groups, corruption of government officials, and distortionary policies. From the ongoing it is therefore conclusive that the Nigeria government faced with the tradeoffs of preparing for risk and coping with its consequence is better at the latter as evidenced in the next slides which shows the role of the external environment in reducing the impact of shocks.
Developing countries are already suffering from the impacts of climate change and are the most vulnerable to further change. Flooding is the common and most costly natural disaster, though its impacts are also exacerbated by anthropogenic sources. Quality assessment of the risk impacts of flood will facilitate countries to plan adaptation measures and adapt effectively. Risk management helps to prepare for the shock that could undermine development. That is, effective combination of capacities (research, protection, insurance) with an ability to cope with the aftermath of the shock. Thus risk management helps in effectively combining capacities thereby setting priorities and making choices which are both unavoidable and necessary so as to effectively employ and manage resources. To overcome flooding in Nigeria, we need to learn the process of effective risk management which begins with the understanding of risk embodied in a situation, and then how to effectively prepare for the risk by allocating limited resources between combined capacities and in essence striking a perfect balance without halting development.