1. Hammer Butt Spring Replacement: English and European ActionsThe previous newsletter described the process of replacing Hammer Butt Return Springs onan older American upright piano action, where its usual for all the springs to be fitted alonga separate rail. It is more usual on English and European actions to have the Hammer ButtReturn Springs fitted into the Hammer Butts, engaging with a cord loop on the HammerFlange. This article illustrates the replacement of broken springs on an 1880s Bechsteinupright piano.The photo below shows a Hammer Butt with a broken Return Spring. There should be a tailabout an inch long with a hook at the end, but it has broken off.First, it is necessary to remove the remainder of the broken Spring. The photo below showsit being gently prised out here with a pair of tweezers, but an awl might be better.