2. Lesson 13 : Vocal Music from Africa Africa- home to approximately 80 million people from different cultural backgrounds and tradition. -this content is the birthplace of one of the worlds most unique musical styles. Music- an integral part of the lives of the African people. It is closely related to any aspects of their lives. It goes much deeper than just singing songs for rituals 3. Traditional African Music -it is used for worship and courtship, for easing hard work, and simply for giving pleasure or entertainment. The Griots- a highly skilled musicians - pass on tribal history through oral traditions. African music developed through the blending influences of the following: - European - African-American - Middle Eastern 4. Soukous- the congolese guitar band music - one of the most influential styles of popular music in Africa. -Characteristics of African Music- Characteristics of predominate African music: - Rhythmic patterns / movements - Percussive sounds Polyrhythmic- means they perform two or more basic rhythms simultaneously. Vocal style- another important element of African music. 5. Call-response Technique- in this technique, the lead singer who is highly trained, sings a line or a phrase which the rest of the group sings or echoes back. Most commonly observed musical practices in Vocal Music: -Glissandos - Bends - Swoops 6. Lesson 14: African Musical Instrument African Vocal Music- polyrhythmic and responsorial style. - its music is predominantly rhythmic and percussive. Handclapping- the basic rhythmic accompaniment of nomadic tribes. African Rituals and Ceremonies- on the musical accompaniment of drums, which id believed to help summon spirits. 7. Music- used as a means to communicate everyday tasks, religious events and calls to war. Some prominently known instruments: -Talking drums- of West and Central African tribes. -Talking xylophones- of the Jabo tribe. -Talking flutes- of the Nigerian tribe. Important as the playing of musical instruments: -Dancing, singing, clapping 8. Idiophones Most commonly used in Africa. These are commonly played by societies that did not used drums. 1.Rattles- made of dried gourd from the calabash tree and are covered with beads to create rattling sounds when tapped or shaken. Two kinds of Rattles: Primary Rattles- held by the hands. 9. Secondary Rattles- are worn by the performers on their bodies and activated through bodily movements. 2. Clappers- reproduce the sound of hand clapping for ceremonial purposes. 10. Scrapped and Stamped Idiophones- some sounds are produced by rubbing a gourd against a board by scrapping a bottle with a thin. Mbira (Sansa or hand piano)- this melodic idiophone is made from graduated series of wooden or metal strips that are arranged. 11. Xylophone- Made up of a series of wooden slabs or keys mounted on a clay post or on a wooden frame. Membranophones -Used to emphasize the rhythmic and percussive nature of their music. Drums- carved out of wood or made of strips of wood that are bound together. 12. -Come in various size and shapes. The most common instrument throughout Africa. Flutes- usually made from bamboo, stalks of millet, the tip of gourd, and the husk of cane. 13. Reed pipes- it is played by inhaling and exhaling through the slit around its opening. Trumphets and Horns- made from animal horns, elephant tusks and wood. Used for conveying signals and messages as well as music. 14. Chordophones Musical bows- the simplest of all African chordophones. Zither- are stringed instruments that are positioned horizontally. 15. Lutes- instruments with strings that run parallel to their necks and are played through plucking or bowing. 16. Lesson 15: Latin American Music Latin America- refers to the countries found on the South America Continent, as well as the entire Caribbean. -Latin American Musical Styles- Calypso- a form of music and dance popular in the Caribbean. It originated from the pre- Lenten carnival in Trinidad where musicians played their music nightly. 17. Rumba- an Afro-Cuban song and dance music that is polyrhythmic and is natural and spontaneous in its movements. It exhibits to fast tempos. Three part form: 1. improvised verses 2. repetitive call 3. response singing Merengue- well known vocal and dance music that was adopted from the Dominican Republic. 18. Tango- emerged at the end of 19th century from Buenos Aires. This dance was probably derived from the Milonga, a lively suggestive dance Argentina. Salsa- a musical style that was developed in New York City by the Urban Caribbean Hispanics. 19. Lesson 16: Musical Instruments of Latin America Latin American Music- one of the most influential kinds of music in the world. Different Musical Styles: 1. Tango 4. Rumba 2. Cha- cha 5. Salsa 3. Samba 6. Merengue 20. -Percussion Instrument- Maracas- a pair of dried gourds with wooden handles. They are played by shaking. Claves- pairs of round, hardwood sticks that are tapped together. They are used to play a special on going syncopated rhythm. 21. Bongo Drum- pair of drums struck by the hands. Congo Drum- single extra tall bongo, struck with the players hand. Cabasa- looks like a wooden spool with metal 22. beads wound around it and a wooden handle. Steel Drums- tuned metal barrels. 23. -String Instruments- Puerto Rican Cuatro- small four-stringed instruments similar to the largest ukulele. Tiple- it has four double/triple sets of strings that are used to accompany a certain music. 24. Charango- lute-shaped instrument with five pairs of string. -Wind Instrument- Panpipes- known as antaras, a type of wooden instrument from the Andes Mountain, now Peru. 25. Trumpets- wind instruments that are made from conch shells, tree barks and bamboo. 26. The end..