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Trends and innovations in teaching large classes

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Teaching Approaches to Large Classes

Trends and Innovations in Teaching Large ClassesPresented by Dr. Suma Dawn, JIIT, Noida

To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. . .The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and others' knowledge. . .Teaching is fundamentally about creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical conditions under which students agree to take charge of their own learning, individually and collectively [1]

8:30-9:30?Take copies of Active Lrn, HTMI, New Paradigms,

Achieving learning objectivesHaving a rich learning experienceHaving a rich teaching experience

Goals of Teaching and Learning

4It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments.

James Duderstadt, 1999 [Nuclear Engineering Professor; Dean, Provost and President of the University of Michigan]Curtesy: Karl A. Smith, Effective, Interactive Strategies for Facilitating Learning

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[19], [20]

Model for Learning - System

Past: 1:9Present: 1:23Future: 1:30[3]Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)Massification of Higher Education [5]

Curtsey: International Institute of Information technology, Hyderabad

Goals of Teaching and Learning

Large ClassroomAdministratorsTeachersStudents

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The main goal for instructors teaching large classes, apart from delivering the course knowledge, are to make the class seem smaller than it is, encourage students to participate more, and make themselves accessible to the students

(University of Maryland, [9]).

Large Classes

AICTE-UGC prescribed rule in India:15:1 for lab/practical60:1 for lectures

Why are classes large?Lack of experienced facultyPopular coursesLack of infrastructureEconomies of scale

Large Classes

Features of Large ClassesDiversity (learning abilities, prior knowledge, learning styles, expectations, goals).Dynamics of a large class are different.Student and faculty usually hold negative perception.Offers opportunities for enriched learning.No conclusive evidence that class size negatively affect learningPedagogical changes are required to achieve quality learning.

Goals: What student wants to gain out of class

Dynamics: peer pressure increases, mix of students

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Pedago-pathologies [2]Amnesia

Fantasia

Inertia

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on Stage

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on Stage

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on StageStudent Isolation and Anonymity - Managing interaction in class and outside class

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on StageStudent Isolation and Anonymity - Managing interaction in class and outside class

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on StageStudent Isolation and Anonymity - Managing interaction in class and outside classEnsuring every one gets to know the basics

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on StageStudent Isolation and Anonymity - Managing interaction in class and outside classEnsuring every one gets to know the basics Personalization of learning

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on StageStudent Isolation and Anonymity - Managing interaction in class and outside classEnsuring every one gets to know the basics Personalization of learningChoice of pedagogyTeaching style for active learningSelecting appropriate pace and content for lectures.Maintaining instructor EnthusiasmMaintaining Student Interest

Teaching-Learning Related ChallengesSage on StageStudent Isolation and Anonymity - Managing interaction in class and outside classEnsuring every one gets to know the basics Personalization of learningChoice of pedagogyTeaching style for active learningSelecting appropriate pace and content for lectures.Maintaining instructor EnthusiasmMaintaining Student Interest Designing meaningful assessments

Administrative ChallengesDealing with volume of gradingGrading loadplagiarismReliable grading schemeEstablishing CommunicationDisciplineAttendanceFeedback exchangeOrganizing practical activitiesTA management

22How People Learn

Problem-based learningCooperative LearningCollaborative TeachingActive LearningSome Strategies

Problem-based learningSome Strategies

Problem-based learningCooperative LearningCooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).Some Strategies

Problem-based learningCooperative LearningCollaborative TeachingCollaborative teaching involves collaboration by multiple teachers playing complementary roles [16]-[18]. It can also use a rotational model where collaborating teachers keep on changing their roles [19]. Collaborative teaching provides many pedagogical advantages over traditional teaching methodology. It helps in creating a dynamic and interactive learning environment [20].The four predominant forms of collaborative teaching are supportive, parallel, complementary and team teaching [21].Some Strategies

Problem-based learningCooperative LearningCollaborative TeachingActive Learning anything that involves students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing

Some StrategiesBonwell & Eison [21]

[22]

[22]

[22]

[22]

[25]

Instructor competency and enthusiasmOrganizational and teaching strategies [16].Assignments [14]Personalizing learning-teaching space [18]. Encouraging more collaborative and cooperative learning environmentActive Learning In large Classes(CADQ Guide [13]):

Teaching Large ClassesPre-Work for Large Class & Student SuccessEngaging Students Creating CommunityDesigning Meaningful Learning ExperiencesReducing Marking Madness

Teaching Large ClassesPre-Work for Large Class & Student SuccessWhat are students learning outcomes?What are your expectations for behavior in class?What are your expectations for behavior outside of class?How can you engage students and create a community of learners of a large class?What organizational structures will you use to maximize student engagement and learningCan you still use active learning?How can you best manage assignments and assessments?

Teaching Large ClassesPre-Work for Large Class & Student SuccessEngaging Students

Teaching Large ClassesPre-Work for Large Class & Student SuccessEngaging Students Creating CommunityCreating an open and invitational environmentStop, Start & ContinueClassroom Assessment Strategies

Teaching Large ClassesPre-Work for Large Class & Student SuccessEngaging Students Creating CommunityDesigning Meaningful Learning ExperiencesLecture BreaksChannel CapacityMinute Papers & Muddiest PointsBack channelSend & Solve Problems

Teaching Large ClassesPre-Work for Large Class & Student SuccessEngaging Students Creating CommunityDesigning Meaningful Learning ExperiencesReducing Marking MadnessAssessment StartersPeer AssessmentAlternative Assessments

Assessment GradientHigh

Ease of Assessment

Low

Multiple Choice, T/F

Diagrams, Concept maps, Quantitative response

Short answer

Essay, Research papers/ reports

Oral InterviewLow

Potential forAssessment of Learning

High

[24]

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University of MarylandUniversity of California, BerkerleyIowa State UniversityUniversity of PurdueThe University of MelbourneBrown University, Rhode IslandOregon State UniversityBrigham Young UniversityKansas State University University of Canterbury North Carolina State UniversityUniversity of WashingtonAustralian Universities Teaching CommitteeMissouri UniversityFlorida State UniversityUniversity of OregonUniversity of North Carolina, CharlotteThe Ohio State University.Large Classes - not so uncommon

class size has less effect when teachers are competent; and the single most important influence on student achievement is teacher quality. Research shows unequivocally that it is far more valuable, both in education and fiscal terms, to have good teachers than lots of teachers [26].

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hankyou

Christensen, C. R. (1991).Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA 02163.Shulman, L. S. (1999). Taking learning seriously.Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning,31(4), 10-17.(2013). All India Survey on Higher Education. Dept. of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Benbow, J., Mizrachi, A., Oliver, D., Said-Moshiro, L. (2009). Large Class Size in the Developing World: What Do We Know and What Can We Do? American Institute for Research: Educational Quality Improvement Program. http://www.equip123.net/docs/E1-Large Classrooms.pdfMohamedbhai, G. (2008). The Effects of Massification on Higher Education in Africa. http://www2.aau.org/whge/scm/meetings/mai08/adea/study_massification.pdfAICTE Approval Process Handbook, (2013-2014). All India Council of Technical Education, India. http://www.aicte-india.org/downloads/ performance.pdfGoel, S. (2006, February). Do engineering faculty know what's broken. InThe National Teaching & Learning Forum(Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 1-6). G B

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