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  • Oil and gas production handbook An introduction to oil and gas production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry Hvard Devold
  • 2 ISBN 978-82-997886-3-2
  • b PREFACE This handbook has been compiled for readers with an interest in the oil and gas industry. It is an overview of the main processes and equipment. When we searched for a suitable introduction to be used for new engineers, I discovered that much of the equipment is described in standards, equipment manuals and project documentation. Little material was found to quickly give the reader an overview of the entire oil and gas industry, while still preserving enough detail to let the engineer have an appreciation of the main characteristics and design issues. I have had many requests that downstream processes be included, and have restructured the book into Upstream, Midstream, Refining and Petrochemical, adding basic information on these facilities. The main focus of the book is still the upstream production process. This book is by no means a complete description on the detailed design of any part of this process, and many details have been omitted in order to summarize a vast subject. The material has been compiled from various online resources, as well as ABB and customer documents. I am grateful to my colleagues in the industry for providing their valuable input and comments. I have included many photos to give you, the reader, an impression of what typical facilities or equipment look like. Non-ABB photo sources are given below pictures; other pictures and illustrations are copyrighted by ABB. Edition 3.0 Oslo, August 2013 Hvard Devold 2006 - 2013 ABB Oil and Gas Except as otherwise indicated, all materials, including but not limited to design, text, graphics, other files, and the selection and arrangement thereof, are the copyright property of ABB, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. You may electronically copy and print a hard-copy of this document only for non-commercial or personal use, within the organization that employs you, provided that the materials are not modified and all copyright or proprietary notices are retained. Use of photos and graphics and references from other sources in no way promotes or endorses these products and services and is for illustration only. Pictures credited to Wikipedia are licensed under GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) or Public Domain (PD) and are published here with the same license. Originals and full information can be found on www.wikimedia.org.
  • I CONTENTS 1 Introduction............................................................................................. 1 2 Facilities and processes......................................................................... 4 2.1 Exploration..................................................................................... 4 2.2 Production ..................................................................................... 5 2.2.1 Onshore ................................................................................ 7 2.2.2 Offshore ................................................................................ 8 2.3 Upstream process sections ......................................................... 12 2.3.1 Wellheads ........................................................................... 12 2.3.2 Manifolds and gathering ..................................................... 13 2.3.3 Separation........................................................................... 14 2.3.4 Metering, storage and export.............................................. 15 2.3.5 Utility systems..................................................................... 16 2.4 Midstream.................................................................................... 16 2.4.1 Gas Plants .......................................................................... 16 2.4.1 Gas compression................................................................ 17 2.4.2 Pipelines ............................................................................. 17 2.4.1 LNG liquefaction and regasification facilities...................... 18 2.5 Refining ....................................................................................... 18 2.6 Petrochemical.............................................................................. 19 3 Reservoir and wellheads...................................................................... 21 3.1 Crude oil and natural gas ............................................................ 21 3.1.1 Crude oil.............................................................................. 21 3.1.2 Natural gas.......................................................................... 23 3.1.3 Condensates....................................................................... 24 3.2 The reservoir ............................................................................... 24 3.3 Exploration and drilling ................................................................ 26 3.4 The well ....................................................................................... 29 3.4.1 Well casing.......................................................................... 29 3.4.2 Completion.......................................................................... 31 3.5 Wellhead...................................................................................... 32 3.5.1 Subsea wells....................................................................... 34 3.5.2 Injection............................................................................... 35 3.6 Artificial lift ................................................................................... 35 3.6.1 Rod pumps.......................................................................... 35 3.6.2 ESP..................................................................................... 36 3.6.3 Gas lift................................................................................. 36 3.6.4 Plunger lift........................................................................... 37 3.7 Well workover, intervention and stimulation................................ 38 4 The upstream oil and gas process....................................................... 40 41 4.1 Manifolds and gathering .............................................................. 42
  • II 4.1.1 Pipelines and risers ............................................................ 42 4.1.2 Production, test and injection manifolds............................. 42 4.2 Separation ................................................................................... 43 4.2.1 Test separators and well test.............................................. 43 4.2.2 Production separators......................................................... 43 4.2.3 Second stage separator...................................................... 45 4.2.4 Third stage separator.......................................................... 45 4.2.5 Coalescer............................................................................ 46 4.2.6 Electrostatic desalter .......................................................... 46 4.2.7 Water treatment .................................................................. 46 4.3 Gas treatment and compression ................................................. 48 4.3.1 Heat exchangers................................................................. 48 4.3.2 Scrubbers and reboilers...................................................... 49 4.3.3 Compressors, anti-surge and performance........................ 50 4.4 Oil and gas storage, metering and export ................................... 55 4.4.1 Fiscal metering.................................................................... 55 4.4.2 Storage ............................................................................... 57 4.4.3 Marine loading .................................................................... 58 5 Midstream facilities............................................................................... 59 5.1 Gathering..................................................................................... 59 5.2 Gas plants ................................................................................... 59 5.2.1 Gas composition ................................................................. 59 5.3 Gas processing............................................................................ 62 5.3.1 Acid gas removal ................................................................ 63 5.3.2 Dehydration......................................................................... 64 5.3.3 Mercury removal ................................................................. 64 5.3.4 Nitrogen rejection................................................................ 65 5.3.5 NGL recovery and treatment .............................................. 65 5.3.6 Sales gas specifications ..................................................... 65 5.4 Pipelines ...................................................................................... 67 5.4.1 Pipeline terminal ................................................................. 67 5.4.2 Gas Pipelines, compressor and valve stations................... 67 5.4.3 Liquid pipelines, pump and valve stations.......................... 68 5.4.4 Pipeline management, control and safety .......................... 69 5.5 LNG ............................................................................................. 70 5.5.1 LNG liquefaction ................................................................. 71 5.5.2 Storage, transport and regasification.................................. 76 6