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- INSTRUCTORS MANUAL FOR ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS imfm.qxd 9/15/05 12:06 PM Page i
- imfm.qxd 9/15/05 12:06 PM Page ii
- INSTRUCTORS MANUAL FOR ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS NINTH EDITION ERWIN KREYSZIG Professor of Mathematics Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. imfm.qxd 9/15/05 12:06 PM Page iii
- Copyright 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax (508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. ISBN-13: 978-0-471-72647-0 ISBN-10: 0471-72647-8 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Vice President and Publisher: Laurie Rosatone Editorial Assistant: Daniel Grace Associate Production Director: Lucille Buonocore Senior Production Editor: Ken Santor Media Editor: Stefanie Liebman Cover Designer: Madelyn Lesure Cover Photo: John Sohm/Chromosohm/Photo Researchers This book was set in Times Roman by GGS Information Services and printed and bound by Hamilton Printing. The cover was printed by Hamilton Printing. This book is printed on acid free paper. imfm.qxd 9/15/05 12:06 PM Page iv
- PREFACE General Character and Purpose of the Instructors Manual This Manual contains: (I) Detailed solutions of the even-numbered problems. (II) General comments on the purpose of each section and its classroom use, with mathematical and didactic information on teaching practice and pedagogical aspects. Some of the comments refer to whole chapters (and are indicated accordingly). Changes in Problem Sets The major changes in this edition of the text are listed and explained in the Preface of the book. They include global improvements produced by updating and streamlining chapters as well as many local improvements aimed at simplification of the whole text. Speedy orientation is helped by chapter summaries at the end of each chapter, as in the last edition, and by the subdivision of sections into subsections with unnumbered headings. Resulting effects of these changes on the problem sets are as follows. The problems have been changed. The large total number of more than 4000 problems has been retained, increasing their overall usefulness by the following: Placing more emphasis on modeling and conceptual thinking and less emphasis on technicalities, to parallel recent and ongoing developments in calculus. Balancing by extending problem sets that seemed too short and contracting others that were too long, adjusting the length to the relative importance of the material in a section, so that important issues are reflected sufficiently well not only in the text but also in the problems. Thus, the danger of overemphasizing minor techniques and ideas is avoided as much as possible. Simplification by omitting a small number of very difficult problems that appeared in the previous edition, retaining the wide spectrum ranging from simple routine problems to more sophisticated engineering applications, and taking into account the algorithmic thinking that is developing along with computers. Amalgamation of text, examples, and problems by including the large number of more than 600 worked-out examples in the text and by providing problems closely related to those examples. Addition of TEAM PROJECTS, CAS PROJECTS, and WRITING PROJECTS, whose role is explained in the Preface of the book. Addition of CAS EXPERIMENTS, that is, the use of the computer in experimental mathematics for experimentation, discovery, and research, which often produces unexpected results for open-ended problems, deeper insights, and relations among practical problems. These changes in the problem sets will help students in solving problems as well as in gaining a better understanding of practical aspects in the text. It will also enable instructors to explain ideas and methods in terms of examples supplementing and illustrating theoretical discussionsor even replacing some of them if so desired. imfm.qxd 9/15/05 12:06 PM Page v
- Show the details of your work. This request repeatedly stated in the book applies to all the problem sets. Of course, it is intended to prevent the student from simply producing answers by a CAS instead of trying to understand the underlying mathematics. Orientation on Computers Comments on computer use are included in the Preface of the book. Software systems are listed in the book at the beginning of Chap. 19 on numeric analysis and at the beginning of Chap. 24 on probability theory. ERWIN KREYSZIG vi Instructors Manual imfm.qxd 9/15/05 12:06 PM Page vi
- Part A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODEs) CHAPTER 1 First-Order ODEs Major Changes There is more material on modeling in the text as well as in the problem set. Some additions on population dynamics appear in Sec. 1.5. Electric circuits are shifted to Chap. 2, where second-order ODEs will be available. This avoids repetitions that are unnecessary and practically irrelevant. Team Projects, CAS Projects, and CAS Experiments are included in most problem sets. SECTION 1.1. Basic Concepts. Modeling, page 2 Purpose. To give the students a first impression what an ODE is and what we mean by solving it. Background Material. For the whole chapter we need integration formulas and techniques, which the student should review. General Comments This section should be covered relatively rapidly to get quickly to the actual solution methods in the next sections. Equations (1)(3) are just examples, not for solution, but the student will see that solutions of (1) and (2) can be found by calculus, and a solution y ex of (3) by inspection. Problem Set 1.1 will help the student with the tasks of Solving y (x) by calculus Finding particular solutions from given general solutions Setting up an ODE for a given function as solution Gaining a first experience in modeling, by doing one or two problems Gaining a first impression of the importance of ODEs without wasting time on matters that can be done much faster, once systematic methods are available. Comment on General Solution and Singular Solution Usage of the term general solution is not uniform in the literature. Some books use the term to mean a solution that includes all solutions, that is, both the particular and the singular ones. We do not adopt this definition for two reasons. First, it is frequently quite difficult to prove that a formula includes all solutions; hence, this definition of a general solution is rather useless in practice. Second, linear differential equations (satisfying rather general conditions on the coefficients) have no singular solutions (as mentioned in the text), so that for these equations a general solution as defined does include all solutions. For the latter reason, some books use the term general solution for linear equations only; but this seems very unfortunate. 1 im01.qxd 9/21/05 10:17 AM Page 1
- SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM SET 1.1, page 8 2. y e3x /3 c 4. y (sinh 4x)/4 c 6. Second order. 8. First order. 10. y ce0.5x , y(2) ce 2, c 2/e, y (2/e)e0.5x 0.736e0.5x 12. y cex x 1, y(0) c 1 3, c 2, y 2ex x 1 14. y c sec x, y(0) c/cos 0 c 1_ 2, y 1_ 2 sec x 16. Substitution of y cx c2 into the ODE gives y2 xy y c2 xc (cx c2 ) 0. Similarly, y 1_ 4x2 , y 1_ 2x, thus 1_ 4x2 x(1_ 2x) 1_ 4x2 0. 18. In Prob. 17 the constants of integration were set to zero. Here, by two integrations, y g, v y gt c1, y 1_ 2gt2 c1t c2, y(0) c2 y0, and, furthermore, v(0) c1 v0, hence y 1_ 2gt2 v0 t y0, as claimed. Times of fall are 4.5 and 6.4 sec, from t 100/4.9 and 200/4.9. 20. y ky. Solution y y0 ekx , where y0 is the pressure at sea level x 0. Now y(18000) y0 ek18000 1_ 2y0 (given). From this, ek18000 1_ 2, y(36000) y0 ek218000 y0(ek18000 )2 y0(1_ 2)2 1_ 4y0. 22. For 1 year and annual, daily, and continuous compounding we obtain the values ya(1) 1060.00, yd(1) 1000(1 0.06/365)365 1061.83, yc(1) 1000e0.06 1061.84, respectively. Similarly for 5 years, ya(5) 1000 1.065 1338.23, yd(5) 1000(1 0.06/365)3655 1349.83, yc(5) 1000e0.065 1349.86. We see that the difference between daily compounding and continuous compounding is very small. The ODE for continuous compounding is yc ryc. SECTION 1.2. Geometric Meaning of y (x, y). Direction Fields, page 9 Purpose. To give the student a feel for the nature of ODEs and the general behavior of fields of solutions. This amounts to a conceptual clarification before entering into formal manipulations of solution methods, the latter being restricted to relatively smallalbeit importantclasses of ODEs. This approach is becoming increasingly important, especially because of the graphical power of computer software. It is the analog of conceptual studies of the derivative and integral in calculus as opposed to formal techniques of differentiation and integration. Comment on Isoclines These could be omitted beca