Hydro electricity and hydro power plant

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    28-Nov-2014

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Hydro Power Plant

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<ul><li> 1. HYDRO ELECTRICITY AND HYDRO POWER PLANT By- RAJKUMAR PARIHAR (B11074) </li> <li> 2. HISTORY OF HYDROPOWER The first hydroelectric power dam in the world was built in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882. In India, Jamshed ji Tata built the first hydroelectric power dam in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra in the early 1900s to supply power to Bombays Cotton and Textile Mills. He took the British Governments permission to build dams, namely the Andhra, Sirowata, Valvan and Mulshi hydel dams in the Western Ghats to generate electricity using high rainfalls in the hills as storage. </li> <li> 3. Hydroelectric power India ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario. In 2012, India is the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric power with 114,000 GW hours With installed capacity of 37 GW , it produces 3.3% of the world's total. </li> <li> 4. Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environment friendly source of energy. Oldest energy technique known to mankind for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. Contributes around 22% of the world electricity supply generated. The Working Group of the Planning Commission for the Twelfth Plan has estimated a total requirement of 1403 Billion Units(BU) per annum by the end of 12th Five Year Plan (201617) out of which share of hydro generation is expected to be 12%. As per Planning Commission, the capacity addition for the 12th Five Year Plan on an all-India comprises 10,897 MW for Hydro. </li> <li> 5. The public sector has a predominant share of 97% in this sector, National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO), Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVNL), THDC, NTPC-Hydro are a few public sector companies engaged in development of Hydroelectric Power in India. </li> <li> 6. The hydro power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha (Shivanasamudra) were established in 1898 and 1902 respectively and are among the first in Asia. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. The present installed capacity as on September 30, 2013 is approximately 39,788.40 MW which is 17.39% of total electricity generation in India. </li> <li> 7. Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB), an illustrative state owned enterprise in north India, has an installed capacity of 2.9 GW and generates 12,000-14,000 million units per year. The cost of generation of energy after four decades of operation is about 20 paise/kWh. BBMB reservoirs annually supply water for irrigation to 12.5 million acres (51,000 km2; 19,500 sq mi) of agricultural land of partner states, enabling northern India in its green revolution. </li> <li> 8. Working Principle </li> <li> 9. DAM TURBINE POWER HOUSE INTAKE GENERATOR PENSTOCK RESEVOIR POWER LINE TRANSFORMER </li> <li> 10. The movement of water can be used to make electricity. Energy from water is created by the force of water moving from a higher elevation to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the water reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or turbine. The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the generator, making electricity. </li> <li> 11. its function is to convert the K.E of moving water into mechanical energy The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. </li> <li> 12. BASIC PRINCIPAL Heart of the hydroelectric . The basic process is to rotate a series of gaint magnets inside coils of wire. This process moves electrons, which produces electrical current. </li> <li> 13. INSIDE THE GENERATOR:- 1. Shaft 2. Excitor 3. Rotor 4. Stator </li> <li> 14. Principle As the turbine turns, the excitor sends an electrical current to the rotor. The rotor is a series of large electromagnets that spins inside a tightly-wound coil of copper wire, called the stator. The magnetic field between the coil and the magnets creates an electric current. </li> <li> 15. POWER HOUSE AND EQUIPMENTS:- In the scheme of hydropower the role of power house is to protect the electromechanical equipment that convert the potential energy of water into electricity. Following are the equipments of power plant: 1.Valve 5.Condensor 2.Turbine 6.Protection System 3.Generator 7.DC emergency Supply 4.Control System 8.Power and current transformer </li> <li> 16. Efficiency A hydroelectric power plant operates under the following conditions: Water flow rate: 1.25 m3/s River inlet: 1 atm., 4.7C Discharge: 1 atm., 5.1C, 254 m below intake. Assuming that water intlet and discharge ducts have the same areas, and that no heat is transferred to or absorbed from the surroundings. </li> <li> 17. Efficiency density of water = 0.998 g/cm = 998 kg/m 1.25m x 998 kg/m = 1248 kg PE of the water is 1248 kg x 9.81 x 254 = 3.108e6 joules E lost due to heating is E = 4.17 kJ/(kg.K) x 1248 kg x 0.4K = 2082 kJ Subtracting E gained = 3108 kJ - 2082 kJ = 1026 kJ eff = 1026/3108 = 33% </li> <li> 18. Worlds hydroelectric capacity </li> <li> 19. Major hydro power plants in India </li> <li> 20. Station Operator State Generator Units Capacity (MW) Tehri Dam THDC Uttarakhand 4 x 250, 4 x 100, 4 x 250 2,400 Koyna MahaGenco Maharashtra 4 x 70, 4 x 80, 2 x 20, 4 x 80, 4 x 250 1.960 Srisailam Dam APGenco Andhra Pradesh 6 x 150, 7 x 110 1,670 Nathpa Jhakri SJVNL Himachal Pradesh 6 x 250 1,500 Sharavathi KPCL Karnataka 10 x 103.5, 2 x 27.5, 4 x 60 1,469 Sardar Sarovar Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Gujarat 6 x 200, 5 x 140 1,450 Bhakra Dam BBMB Punjab 5 x 108, 5 x 157 1,325 Kalinadi KPCL Karnataka 2 x 50, 1 x 135, 5 x 150, 3 x 50, 3 x 40 1,240 Chamera Dam NHPC Himachal Pradesh 3 x 180, 3 x 100, 3 x 77 1,071 </li> <li> 21. Major hydro power plants in World </li> <li> 22. NAME COUNTRY INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) Three Gorges Dam People's Republic of China 22,500 Itaipu Dam Brazil 14,000 Guri Venezuela 8,850 Tucuru Brazil 8,370 Grand Coulee United States 6,809 Longtan Dam People's Republic of China 6,426 Krasnoyarsk Russia 6,000 Robert-Bourassa Canada 5,616 Churchill Falls Canada 5,428 </li> <li> 23. Top 5 Hydropower Producing Countries </li> <li> 24. Indias past hydro growth data </li> <li> 25. In the last 30 years, the proportion of hydroelectric capacity in the Indian power system has considerably reduced. Dropped from 46% in 1970 to 40% in 1980, 29% in 1990 and 25% in 2008. Reasons:- Indian power supply industry has always experienced the situation of shortages both in energy and peaking requirements. To tide over the shortage in shortest possible time, more dependence was placed on sources of power generation with shorter gestation period. </li> <li> 26. Future of hydroelectric power in India The Working Group of the Planning Commission for the Twelfth Plan has estimated a total requirement of 1403 Billion Units(BU) per annum by the end of 12th Five Year Plan (201617), out of which share of hydro generation is expected to be 12%. As per Planning Commission, the capacity addition for the 12th Five Year Plan on an all-India comprises 10,897 MW for Hydro. </li> <li> 27. Acceptability in Society Hydropower, while being projected as a clean and renewable energy source, has time and again been resisted vociferously in North East India in recent times because of the obvious and unintended social and environmental impacts. The anticipated negative impacts of the associated dam and reservoir construction have cast a threat to the security of the indigenous people in terms of water, food, livelihood, energy and above all, the related socio-economic concerns. This is all the more due to the uncertainties flowing from an inadequate understanding of the possible geo-environmental impacts in a highly sensitive terrain. To cope and live with the potential negative ramifications of hydropower projects, a comprehensive hydropower policy with emphasis on long-term environmental and social security and sustainability is imperative. </li> <li> 28. ADVANTAGES: 1) No fuel required 2) Cost of electricity is constant 3) No air-pollution is created 4) Long life 5) Cost of generation of electricity 6) Can easily work during high peak daily loads 7) Irrigation of farms 8) Water sports and gardens 9) Prevents floods </li> <li> 29. DISADVANTAGES: 1) Disrupts the aquatic ecosystems 2) Disruption in the surrounding areas 3) Requires large areas 4) Large scale human displacement 5) Very high capital cost or investment 6) High quality construction 7) Site specific 8) Effects on environment 9) Safety of the dams </li> <li> 30. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroelectric power has always been an important part of the worlds electricity supply, providing reliable, cost efficient, electricity, and will continue to do so in the future. Hydropower has environmental impacts, which are very different from those of fossil fuel power plants. The actual effects of dams and reservoirs on various ecosystems are only now becoming understood. The future demand of hydro electricity will depend on future demand for electricity, as well as how societies value the environmental impacts of hydro electric power compared to the impacts of other sources of electricity. </li> </ul>

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