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A slideshow on Riverfront development (ongoing activities as well as prospective and necessary measures) in Varanasi, why Varanasi Ghats mean so much, why blind urbanization is not enough, etc.
2. 2INTRODUCTIONCountry : IndiaState : Uttar PradeshCity : Varanasi; Banaras; Benaras; KashiArea : 2,535 km2 (2011 census)Population : 3,676,841 (2011 census)[excluding a daily floating population of approximately 2-3 Lakhs]Sex ratio : 913 per 1000Literacy Rate : 75.60%Average yearly rainfall : 1113 mRiver : GangaStretch of Ganga in Varanasi : 6.5 km1450 km in Uttar Pradesh, with an additional 110 km in the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.[of a total of 2,525 km stretch in India]Number of Ghats/Riverfront Areas : 86 3. A riverfront is the zone of interaction between an urban settlement and a river. Theriverfront area is, in essence, the river bank(s) on or near which the city/town is located.The city of Varanasi is located in the middle Ganga valley of North India, in the Eastern part of UttarPradesh, along the left crescent-shaped bank of Ganga.The riverfront forms the eastern edge of the city. Ganga flows northerly in a crescent shape forabout 7 km and the city has grown on the left bank in a circular form around it. The area along theright side is a flood plain, preserving the natural ecosystem.3The average height of the cityfrom mean sea level is 77 m around 72 m in the south alongthe Assi stream, and 83 m at thehigh ground near the confluenceof the Varana to the Ganga in thenorth (known as Rajghatplateau).The city proper is built on a highridge of kankar (lime concretion)that forms the left bank of Gangafor a distance of 5 km, beingquite above normal flood level. 4. The holy curveThe Ganga is especially sacred in Varanasi whereits course towards the Bay of Bengal suddenlyturns north.This unique directional change of the rivercourse led to the development of the ancientcity of Kashi, on the west bank of the river,facing the rising sun.Only in Varanasi does the Ganga flow in acrescent shape meander from south to north(6.5 km).This peculiar shape is a result of fluvial process through which the coarser sediments getdeposited on its western bank between Rajghat in the north and Samne ghat in the south.Between these two points a hillock-like geological feature, called natural leve, has formed. It isa 60 m bed of clay with coarse-grained sand, limestone concretion (kankar) and gravel. Thispeculiar geological formation changes the flow of Ganga in a half-circular shape.4This sharp-bend meander is only observed in Varanasi throughout Gangas course symbolically described as the crescent moon on the forehead of Lord Shiva. 5. Riverfront Heritage Zone, Core Heritage Zone = densely populated (above 500 persons/ha)Eastern bank = a wide sand beltBeyond the sand belt is a protected green belt of trees within which lies a reserved areafor turtle breeding. The sand is utilized for construction purposes and during winters, aportion of the sand belt is used for vegetable and melon farming.5 6. 6 7. 7 8. 8 9. 9 10. 10 11. 11Managing the filth 12. 12Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam Reports1. Status of Varanasi Urban water supply as on 01/04/2005Note: mld = million litre per dayProduction of waste water (mld) 309.0No. of STPs constructed 3Total capacity of STPs (mld) 101.8% of waste water treated 33No. of drains 27Discharge of drains (mld) 309.80Sewage diverted (mld) 125.00STPs proposed under GAP Phase II 4; capacity (mld) 208.002. Status of non-core activities (proposed and completed) under river action plan phase ILow cost sanitation 3Crematoria 1Development of Ghats 43. Financial status of river action planSchemes completed under phase I 13; cost 36.81 croreSchemes proposed under phase II 5; Approved schemes 4; cost 43.92 crore 13. Uttar Pradesh State Ganga River Conservation Agency (UPSGRCA)13Progress Report, July 20141. JICA Assisted GAP II, Varanasi:construction of 1 STP of 140 MLD capacity2 Sewage pumping station205 community toilets10 dhobi ghatslaying of 18 km sewer lineTotal cost of project 496.90 croreSanctioned by GOI on 14/JUL/2010Scheduled date of completion JUL 20152. Development of Area around Assi Ghat, Varanasi:Riverfront development works at Assi Ghat which improve construction of 11 toilet blocks7 urinal blocks6 change rooms4 drinking water fountains2 wash towers10 food and crafts stallsTotal cost of project 27.28 croreSanctioned by GOI on 29/MAR/2011Scheduled date of completion MAR 2013 14. Treatment plantsThe mode of waste water disposal in Varanasi occurs mainly through irrigation and throughthe Assi Nallah than opens into the river Ganga.Under the Ganga Action Plan Phase 1 (GAP-1), 1985, Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) that wereconstructed and are functioning in Varanasi -14Varanasi-Bhagwanpur STP [Bhgwanpur abbreviated henceforth as BHU]Varanasi-Dinapur STPVaranasi-SPT-DLW STP [DLW = Diesel Locomotive Works; SPT = Sompeta]These Sewage Treatment Plants are all of the Activated Sludge Process (ASP) treatmentsystem.The performance of the STPs at DLW and Bhagwanpur were found satisfactory with almost allthe units in operation. The Dinapur and Bhagwanpur STPs are overloaded, while the STP atDLW is under loaded. 15. 15Performance of these 3 Sewage Treatment PlantsCOD = Chemical Oxygen DemandBOD = Biochemical Oxygen DemandTSS = Total Suspended SolidsSTP Raw Waste Water (mg/L) Treated Waste Water (mg/L)COD BOD TSS COD BOD TSSVaranasi-Bhagwanpur147 42 132 53 19 43Varanasi-Dinapur275 120 304 94 28 72Varanasi-SPT-DLW90 28 86 40 10.5 60Percent (%) Reduction of COD, BOD and TSS in each STP -STP Type COD BOD TSSVaranasi-BHU ASP 66 77 76Varanasi-Dinapur ASP 64 55 67.5Varanasi-DLW ASP 56 64 30 16. 16Riverfront Management 17. 17 18. 18Factors that need to be taken into account while planning and managing ariverfront :1) Land side issues site preservation, orientation, scenic views, vegetation,drainage, runoff control systems, limiting non-point pollution sources, solidwaste management, etc.2) Technical and Financial Assistance - agencies and Grant Programs, communitydevelopment blocks, growth management implementation, NGOs, etc.3) Water quality assessment and management sewage treatment plants, wastewater disposal mechanisms, solid waste disposal, grey water management,green water harvesting, etc.4) Environmental considerations point and non-point pollution sources, naturalwater bodies, aquifers, ecosystems, etc.5) Cultural and Religious aspect ascribed holiness, national standing in terms ofpiety, significance in Hindu life, potentialWorld Heritage site, etc.6) Legal systems and existing customary rules and rights, public access, etc.7) Climate, topography, etc. 19. 19Conditions of Working STPs in VaranasiDinapur STP (1994) Location :- North-east of Varanasi. Capacity:- 80 millions litres per day (MLD). Waste water:- Both industrial and sewage water is taken to the STP. Treated waste water is used for irrigation downstream, which is highly toxic in nature. During power failure untreated water is directly used for irrigation. It is running at 1/3 of its capacity.Bhagwanpur STP condition: Location:- south of Varanasi. Capacity:- 70 millions litres per day (MLD). Both sewage and storm water is taken to the STP. During monsoons all sewage pipe lines over flow many pipelines have become choked. 20. 20Problems (elements that can be stated responsible )1. Governance problem2. Infrastructure problems (like ageing infrastructure, chocked sewage pipeline etc. )3. Electrical power supply4. Cultural and Religious aspect5. Involvement of different stakeholders6. Old technologies7. The underground sewerage system was established in 1917. 21. 21 22. 22Factors to be considered in river front management1. Land side uses:- River bank development (like Ghats infrastructure, soil erosion, illegal mining etc. ) 23. 23Technical and Financial Assistance1. Advanced IntegratedWastewater Oxidation Pond System (AIWPS). Fecal coliform bacteria removal mechanisms. Based on operational simplicity, low cost and high removal efficiencies (99% BOD5,suspended solids and coliform bacteria removal). very important advantages such as very low energy and land requirements.2. Ghat Interceptor Sewer. This will collect sewage from outflows that are currently going into Gangaji andconvey this by gravity to an AIWPS sewage treatment plant. 24. 24Environmental considerations1. Without the river and its floodplains the riverfront reserves would not exist.2. It provides habitat and food resource for a freshwater fauna including fish, turtles,water birds and etc.3. The flood plain is host to a large no. of native plants species and provide breedingand nursery area.4. A healthy and diverse assemble of native plants and animals ensure a functioningecosystem and contribute to good water quality and healthy soils.Floodplain Management Strategies Because floodplains have attracted people and industry, a substantial portionof this countrys development is now subject to flooding. Restoring and preserving the natural resources and functions of flood-plains. Development and redevelopment policies on the design and location ofpublic services, utilities and critical facilities. Develop projects that control floodwater. 25. 25Cultural and Religious aspect It has been realised that the cultural and natural heritages are increasingly threatenedby destruction not only due to the traditional causes of decay, but also by changingsocial and economic conditions. Religious by-products (like waste products of puja, bathing soaps, opposing views andsentiments, cremation) 26. 26Varanasis way forward E-governance Better STP technology designs Better maintenance of pipelines, drain covers etc. More vigilant and effective monitoring, assessment and research Improvement of the urban sewerage system (ageing infrastructure) Involvement of various stakeholders at different levels Ghats development while upholding religious sentiments; striving to attain forVaranasi the deserved status of World Heritage site. 27. 27Vishal Pratap Singh1455MWSBedashree Choudhury14109MWS