U.S. History The Conservation Movement In The United States
- 1. The Conservation Movement in the United StatesLate 19th/20th centuries
2. Yosemite National Park
3. Conservation vs. Preservation
What is conservation?
-the wise use of the earth's resources by humanity
-the sustainable use and management of natural resources including wildlife, water, air, and earth deposits
What is preservation?
- to keepnatural resources inperfect or unaltered condition
- to maintain in their present condition areas of the Earth that are so far untouched by humans
The Primary difference
-Preservation protects species or landscapes without reference to natural change in living systems or to human requirements
-Conservation protects and support managed use of thespecies andthe natural landscaperesources
4. John Muir and the Sierra Club
naturalist, explorer, writer, and conservationist
In 1868, he visited Yosemite for first time claiming the region "the most divinely beautiful of all the mountain chains I have ever seen"
He wrote a series of articles appearing in Century magazine,drawing attention to the devastation of mountain meadows and forests by sheep and cattle
In 1892, Muir and a number of his supporters founded theSierra Club to "do something for wildness and make the mountains glad."
The Sierra Club works to protect communities, wild places, and the planet itself. It is the oldest, largest, and most influential grassroots environmental organization in the United States
1901,-Muir publishedOur National Parks, receiving the attention of President Theodore Roosevelt
In 1903, Roosevelt visited Muir in Yosemite. There, together, beneath the trees, they laid the foundation of Roosevelt's innovative and notable conservation programs.
5. TR and Muir at Yosemite
6. Teddy RooseveltThe Progressive President
As a former rancher and active hunter, TR saw first-hand the effects of humanity on the changing face of the American West
1903-TR teamed up with fellow exuberant, John Muir, for an extended hiking trip in Yosemite.
TR witnessed the over-cutting of forests, over-grazing by herds, efforts to control water sources, the dramatic decrease in animal populations (dramatically personified by the near-extinction of the buffalo), mounting violence between open-range proponents vs. ranchers who wanted to fence their property, the movement of Indian populations onto reservations, the expansion of mining and timber industries, and the rapid expansion of railroads
TR's conservation policiesincludedan American frontier ideal while addressing the realities of the changing face of the west.
1909 TR used executive power to transfer 125 million acres to the forest reserves
Thanks to TR, five national parks were created, along with 150 national forests, 51 bird refuges, four national game preserves, 18 national monuments (including the Grand Canyon which later became a national park), 24 reclamation projects, and the National Forest Service
7. TR after a hunting expedition in Africa
8. Artist rendition of TR hunting
9. Gifford Pinchotthe U.S. Forest Service"Caring for the land and serving people. "
In 1905, TR and Pinchot founded the U.S. Forest Service and Society of American Foresters
Conservation means the wise use of the earth and its resources for the lasting good of men
Gifford garnered a forestry education in Europe, bringing it back to North America . He is the first professional forester.
Under Pinchot, representing the Forest Service and the Teddy Roosevelt administration, millions of acres were added to the national forests where the federal government controlled their use and regulated their harvest.
He fought for wiser use of natural resources and for fuller justice for the average citizen. Because of his political beliefs, Pinchot was never far away from controversy.
Preservationists on the left (including John Muir) opposed Pinchots commercialization of the land. On the right, Congress, responding to private pressures became increasingly hostile even to Pinchot's Wise Use causes.
10. TR and Pinchot/Pinchot National Forest
11. The Role of the Hunter
Hunters have been driving forces throughout history in the movement to ensure long-term sustainability of natural resources and wildlife habitats
Because of their connection with the land and vested interest in increasing wildlife populations, hunters have been influential in implementing and financing various programs geared towards habitat restoration and conservation.
In 1937, hunters successfully lobbied Congress to pass the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act, which placed an 11% tax on all hunting equipment. This self-imposed tax now generates over $700 million each year and is used exclusively to establish, restore and protect wildlife habitats
12. Additional Teacher/Student Resources
John Muir Exhibition
The Sierra Club Foundation
Teddy Roosevelt Conservation partnership