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ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2Unit 9 HOME CONTENTS RESOURCES
Internal dynamics of the Earth
CONTENTSINTERNAL DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH
The interior of the Earth Why the interior is so hot
Characteristics Volcanic eruptions
Volcanic eruptions Volcanic materialTypes of eruptions
Reducing the damages Reducing the damage
Relief featuresDistribution of seismic and volcanic activityInteraction of processes
Igneous rocksMetamorphic rocks The rock cycle
Evidence of the heat from the interior of the Earth
Why the interior of the Earth is so hot
Characteristics of the interior of the Earth
Phenomena produced by internalenergy
Eruptions and volcanic material
Types of eruptions
Earthquakes Effects of earthquakes
Reducing the damage
Warning systems Mountain building and relief features
Interaction of internal and external processes
Igneous rocks Metamorphic rocks
Distribution of seismic and volcanicactivity
The rock cycle Links
The interior of the Earth
Earth today4,000 million years ago4,600 million years ago
liquid outer core
solid inner core(6,000 ºC)
nucleusGiant meteorites continually collided with the Earth. As the Earth heated
up, it expanded in size. Metal materials sunk to the centre.
At a depth of 50 km:• the temperature is 600 ºC• the pressure is 20,000 atmospheres
Temperature and pressure increase with depth.
Rate of increase in temperature:
30 ºC per kilometre
At divergent boundaries, plates move apart.
At convergent boundaries, plates push together.
At transform boundaries, plates slide by each other.
Plates move in three ways.
Molten rock and gases are ejected through the Earth’s crust.
Phenomena produced by internal energy
A violent trembling of the Earth’s crust which lasts a short time and varies in intensity.
Slow vertical movement of the Earth’s crust.
A slow horizontal movement of the continents.
Formation of a magnetic field
Evidence of heat from the interior of the Earth
Formation of the atmosphere Hot rocks
hot spots within the
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At more than 1,000 ºC, lava is very liquid and flows easily.
At less than 700 ºC, lava is thick and flows slowly.
Bubbles of gas escape gently.
Bubbles of gas splatter and cause explosions.
Types of eruptions CLICK ON THE GREEN
BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE.
HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIAN VULCANIAN
CLICK ON THE GREEN BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE.
• magma temperature: very high (over 1,000 ºC)• very liquid lava• not very destructive nor explosive
central ventpipe (conduit)
HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIAN VULCANIAN STROMBOLIAN
• magma temperature: moderate (700 - 1,000 ºC)• thick lava• explosive pyroclastic material
Stratovolcano (composite volcano)
volcanic conecentral vent
HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIAN VULCANIANVULCANIAN
• magma temperature: low (less than 700 ºC)• violent, destructive explosions• generally gases and ash are expelled
volcanic pipe of solidified lava
Earthquakes are caused by a sudden release of energy from the Earth’s crust.
Effects of earthquakes
damage to buildings
Studying seismic waves
WHAT OTHER INFORMATIONCAN SCIENTISTS LEARN FROM SEISMIC WAVES?
Answer: They can learn information about the internal structure of the Earth.
solid inner core
tectonic (lithospheric) plates
crust (granite and basalt)
Reducing the damage from earthquakes and volcanoes
Emissions of water vapour and other gases are observed.
Buildings are designed to withstand seismic movement.
An early warning buoy system receives information about waves, wind and seismic movement.
Mountain building and relief features
RELIEF FEATURES OF THE EARTH
HOW RELIEF IS FORMED
The crust thickens.
Two plates move apart.
Two plates push together.
20 million years ago
Alboran plateIberian plate
60 million years ago
Iberian plateAlboran plate
100 million years ago
Two plates push together. RELIEF FEATURES
OF THE EARTH
GO BACKouter core
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Continental shelves: areas near the coastline, under the sea, made up of continental crust
Oceanic (mid-oceanic) ridges: chains of submarine mountains with intense volcanic activity
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Great plains: large extensions of flat land
Mountain ranges:chains of mountains
Ocean trenches: the deepest areas of the ocean
Submarine volcanoescan create volcanic archipelagos.
Abyssal plains: the largest plains on the planet
Distribution of seismic and volcanic activity
high seismic activitymoderate seismic activitylow seismic activity
uplift The weight of deposited sediment produces subsidence.
Agents erode and reduce the weight of the lithosphere.
Igneous rocksCommon igneous rocks
GRANITE PEGAMATITE SYENITE GABBRO
VOLCANIC SCORIA PUMICE OBSIDIAN BASALT
Common metamorphic rocksClay
or slateClay minerals, slate, or schist
Sandstone with quartz Limestone
SLATE SCHIST GNEISS QUARTZITE MARBLE
increase in temperature
intense increase in temperature
very intense increase in temperature
The rock cycle
metamorphismweathering and erosion
How do rocks undergo change?http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page01.cfm?chapter_no=investigation
Observe animations of processes that occur along plate boundaries. http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0804/es0804page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization
The Earth: A living planethttp://www.seed.slb.com/en/scictr/watch/living_planet/index.htm
The rock cycle diagramhttp://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/diagram.html
Animated guide: volcanoeshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4972366.stm
Rocks and the rock cyclehttp://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/rocks_intro.html
How earthquakes happenhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4126809.stm
The interior of the Earthhttp://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/interior.html
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